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Institutes

Albion's Institutes integrate theoretical and practical learning in distinctive and challenging ways. Intended for students who desire preprofessional preparation and academic work focused in a specialty area, the Institutes each have a specific curriculum and may include an internship, a capstone experience and opportunities for independent research. Successful completion of an Institute's program, which is noted on the student's academic transcript, confers an advantage in gaining admission to graduate or professional school or in beginning a career.

Prentiss M. Brown Honors Institute

The Prentiss M. Brown Honors Institute is designed for students interested in challenges and opportunities that go beyond those offered by traditional lecture and laboratory courses. Through small discussion classes, field trips, retreats, guest lecturers, independent research and individualized faculty mentoring, the Institute provides a stimulating variety of academic experiences for talented students. All Brown Honors Institute graduates culminate their academic experience with an extensive research or creative project. Participation in the Institute may be combined with any major and with any of Albion's career preparation programs in law, medicine, public service, environmental science, or business management.

Academic Program -- Although they are not separated from the campus at large, Honors students at Albion do enroll in four unique Honors seminar courses in their first two years. Great Issues in Science, Humanities, Social Science and Fine Arts all explore topics of current interest through the use of classical and contemporary readings. Through their small size, discussion format and emphasis on critical thinking and writing, these special courses encourage students to value ideas and to play active roles in their own intellectual development. They also fulfill the special core curriculum for Honors students.

In addition to the Great Issues seminars, Honors students must graduate with at least a 3.5 cumulative grade point average and produce an Honors thesis. The Honors thesis presents a unique opportunity for Honors students to develop their capacity for original and independent research or creative activity. It also provides excellent preparation for a variety of graduate programs and careers. Work on the thesis begins in a student's junior year. For those who need help in selecting a thesis topic and finding an adviser, the Institute offers an optional Thesis Development Colloquy to guide them through the process. All research and writing of the thesis takes place with close supervision of a faculty thesis adviser and two other faculty readers of a student's choosing. The Foundation for Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity (FURSCA) also provides funds and summer research opportunities to support this project.

Special Features -- The Prentiss M. Brown Honors Institute Center is located in the historic Observatory building and contains a seminar room for Honors classes, the Honors coordinator's office, as well as meeting, library, computing and study areas for Honors students and their guests. Finally, the Institute provides Honors students with opportunities to participate in our Prentiss M. Brown Common Reading Experience, attend popular cultural attractions, have special access to distinguished campus visitors, and to plan and run a variety of other social and intellectual activities through participation in the Honors Council.

Admission -- Albion's Brown Honors Institute accepts applications from students who show superior academic promise. Recognizing there is no one criterion by which academic potential is measured, the Honors Committee annually selects a group of applicants whose high school records, scores on national tests, essays and personal interviews indicate exceptional promise. Currently enrolled Albion College students, as well as high school seniors, may apply for admission to the Institute.

Apply to the Brown Honors Institute.

Contact the director for more information.

Institute for the Study of the Environment

The Institute for the Study of the Environment encourages students to understand the environment and the human place in it by combining the intellectual tradition of the liberal arts with the practical experiences gained in internships and research projects. The Institute's concentrations in environmental sciences and environmental studies allow students to explore environmental questions through participatory learning and research in preparation for graduate studies and/or careers in regulation, remediation, policy formulation, education and the law. The Institute also sponsors internship opportunities, seminars and travel experiences designed to confirm the relationship between the liberal arts and environmental concerns.

The Institute, through its member students and affiliated faculty, encourages all Albion students to develop an awareness of the physical makeup of the biosphere and an appreciation of the vulnerability of the ecosystem. It further encourages students to explore environmental issues from multidisciplinary perspectives and to recognize that their actions have environmental consequences. Through dynamic interaction between environmental theory and practice, locally based but recognizing that the environment knows no boundaries, the Institute enriches its immediate and extended communities.

The Institute is headed by a director with assistance from a faculty/student advisory committee.

Admission -- Students must apply for admission to the Institute and the concentrations that it sponsors. Normally this step is taken as part of the application process to the College, and most members are admitted as incoming students. Students may also apply during their first two years at the College.

Apply to the Institute for the Study of the Environment.

Contact the director for more information.

Environmental Sciences Concentration

The environmental sciences concentration is intended for students who are majoring in one of the sciences offered at Albion and who are planning a career in the environmental field, either as a researcher or practitioner. The concentration provides both breadth and depth in sciences other than the major field of study, as well as practical experience through an internship.

Students who complete this concentration will be well prepared for graduate work in this area, or for entry-level jobs working with environmental consulting firms, analytical laboratories, government agencies or advocacy groups.

Requirements -- The concentration, comprised of seven units of course work plus an internship, has the following requirements.

1. A major in biology, chemistry, geology, mathematics, computer science, mathematics/physics, or physics.

2. An environmental internship (one-half to two units).

3. Experience in two sciences outside the student's major by taking three units in one and two in another. At least three of these five courses must be above the introductory level, which means that these courses must have prerequisites. Courses are to be selected from the following list and in consultation with the concentration director and the student's major department. It is possible to substitute other upper level science courses, depending on the interests of the student.

Biology

195
215
216
225
227
237
332
365

Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity
Aquatic Botany
Vascular Plants
Invertebrate Zoology
Vertebrate Zoology
Ecology
Microbiology
Environmental Microbiology

Chemistry

121
123
200
211, 212
206
327

Structure and Equilibrium
Inorganic Chemistry: Introduction
Chemistry and Social Problems
Organic Chemistry
Chemical Analysis
Advanced Physical and Analytical Laboratory (.5 unit)

Geology

101
202
216
307
211
311

Introductory Geology
Ground Water
Environmental Geology
Geochemistry
Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems
Advanced Geographic Information Systems

and one of the following:

Geology

205
208
306

Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
Geomorphology
Glaciers and the Pleistocene

Mathematics and Physics count as one focus area.

Mathematics and Computer Science

141
143
171
173

Calculus of a Single Variable I
Calculus of a Single Variable II
Introduction to Computer Science I
Introduction to Computer Science II

Physics

115, 116
167, 168, 169
242

General Physics
Analytical Physics I, II, III
Introduction to Theoretical Physics

4. ENVN 220, Economics, Ethics and Environmental Policy (one unit).

5. One course in statistics from the Mathematics Department.

6. Attendance at a series of seminars each semester. In these, students who completed internships the previous semester will report on them, and other items of general interest, such as graduate schools and careers, will be discussed.

Environmental Studies Concentration

The environmental studies concentration is designed for students who have an interest in environmental issues and plan careers in related fields. The choice of courses for this concentration is more open than in the environmental science concentration, due to the varying interests and backgrounds of the students who choose this option. Participating students may pursue a major in any field.

Students who complete this concentration might, for example, enter science journalism or work for environmental advocacy groups.

Requirements -- The following are required for the concentration, which may be completed in conjunction with any major at the College:

1. An environmental internship (one-half to two units).

2. ENVN 102, Introduction to the Environment (one unit).

3. ENVN 220, Economics, Ethics and Environmental Policy (one unit).

4. Two skills courses selected from the following:

Economics 101

Introduction to Economics

English 203

Advanced Expository Writing

Political Science 216

Public Policy Analysis

Mathematics 210

Introduction to Statistical Analysis

No more than one lab science course selected from the following (this option not available for science majors):

Biology 195

Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity

Geology 101

Introductory Geology

Chemistry 121

Structure and Equilibrium

5. Two courses that deal explicitly with environmental issues, selected in consultation with the director.

6. Course in the student's major that is given an environmental focus by completion of an environmental paper, project or activity within the existing structure of the course. Normally these will be at the 200-level or higher. This work will be done in consultation with the director and the course instructor.

7. Attendance at a series of seminars each semester. In these, students who completed internships the previous semester will report on them, and other items of general interest, such as graduate schools and careers, will be discussed.

Internships

The internships required by each concentration allow students to learn how environmental issues are dealt with on a practical, professional level. A wide range of internship opportunities is possible. Students have helped develop environmentally sound practices for major corporations and municipalities, conducted polling for an environmental advocacy group, assessed the health of transplanted eel grass communities in Washington's Puget Sound, developed environmental educational materials in Alaska and worked as a back country ranger in Texas. Summer research can also meet this requirement; students have conducted research on jaguars in Costa Rica, river sediments in Michigan, contaminated marshes in New York State and zooplankton in the Atlantic Ocean.

Institute Activities

The Institute sponsors several other opportunities for student enrichment, including field trips, student research projects and a seminar program. The Institute offers an annual field trip to see important ecosystems within the United States, and human impacts on these systems. To support student research, the Institute provides stipends for students who elect to spend the summer on campus working on independent research projects. The bi-weekly environmental seminar provides an opportunity for students to hear about other students' research and internship experiences, recent graduates' experiences in work and graduate school, faculty lectures on environmental topics, and senior professionals' reflections on their careers. Each year the Institute brings a prominent speaker to campus for a lecture and other interactions with students. Albion is an affiliate member of the School for Field Studies, which offers environmental field studies in Australia, Mexico, Turks and Caicos Islands, Costa Rica and Kenya.

Gerald R. Ford Institute for Public Policy and Service

The Gerald R. Ford Institute for Public Policy and Service assures qualified students a broad liberal arts education with concentrated study in the areas of government and public service. Special emphasis is given to problem-solving, decision-making and leadership. The program also requires students to complete a one-semester internship in public service.

The Ford Institute concentration is open to students with a serious interest in public service, regardless of their major. Present membership includes students with majors as diverse as art, biology, economics and management, English, history, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology. The program includes courses in ethics, public policy and communication, as well as a range of choices from courses in economics and management, English, foreign language, history and political science.

A director and an associate director administer the program with assistance from a faculty advisory committee and a student council. An off-campus advisory committee is composed of individuals distinguished for their public service.

Curriculum -- First-year students in the Ford Institute are expected to take PBSV 101, Introduction to Public Service. Upperclass students take courses in public policy, ethics, writing, speech communication or foreign language. All seniors participate in the senior colloquium (PBSV 397).

Internships -- The one-semester internship allows Institute students to apply the concepts learned in the classroom. Internship opportunities are extremely diverse and have included placements in Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Chicago, Michigan state and local government, and sites in England, France, Germany, Mexico and Australia. Traditionally taken during the junior year, internships are coordinated through the Ford Institute and include a system of student reporting and evaluation.

Institute Activities -- Students also have an opportunity to work on the arrangements for visitors to the campus. Past visitors have included United States senators, ambassadors, governors, and members of Congress and state legislators. Each year, the Ford Institute sponsors lectures and other programs by distinguished public speakers. Student involvement includes the selection of speakers and visitors, and meeting and talking with the visitors while on campus.

Admission -- Students are admitted to the Ford Institute only after being admitted to Albion College. Admission to the Ford Institute is selective. Participants are selected based on their proven leadership, interest in public service, academic ability and previous involvement in political, community and school activities.

All students are expected to maintain a high level of academic performance once admitted, to continue their involvement in campus and community affairs and to become involved in Institute activities.

Apply to the Gerald R. Ford Institute for Public Policy and Service.

Contact the director for more information.

Carl A. Gerstacker Liberal Arts Institute for Professional Management

The Carl A. Gerstacker Liberal Arts Institute for Professional Management combines the traditional strengths of the liberal arts with the knowledge, skills and experiences necessary for entry into leadership and management positions in today's global environment. Since 1973, the Gerstacker Institute has earned an excellent reputation for preparing corporate executives, entrepreneurs, accountants, non-profit managers, attorneys and family business owners. In addition, a high percentage of Institute graduates have attended top-tier business and law schools.

Two academic programs are possible within the Institute. One is the Gerstacker Institute concentration, which is for students who major in economics and management. The other is the management minor--Gerstacker track for students who have a major in a field other than economics and management. Students must be admitted to the Institute prior to pursuing either of these programs of study.

Gerstacker Concentration -- Students complete degree requirements for a major in economics and management, beginning with introductory courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics and financial accounting. A variety of management elective courses are also available in the Department of Economics and Management, including accounting, finance, international business, marketing, human resources and international trade. Students also select related courses in communications, English, ethics, mathematics (at least through Calculus I), foreign languages, psychology, sociology, computer science, political science and other areas. Finally, all Gerstacker concentration students complete two internships or other approved off-campus experiences (as described later in this section).

Management Minor--Gerstacker Track -- This option is a minor within the Economics and Management Department designed for students who seek the core elements of the Gerstacker Institute, but are majoring in a discipline other than economics and management. The six-unit minor begins with the same introductory courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics and financial accounting as in the Gerstacker concentration. Students must then select two additional management courses. With the help of the Gerstacker Institute associate director and department faculty, these electives can be selected to tailor this management minor to any academic major or area of professional interest. Students who select this minor also complete a one-unit internship in a management setting.

Internships and Study Abroad Opportunities -- Key features of the Gerstacker Institute are the opportunities for students to participate in off-campus internships and study abroad opportunities. Three possible alternatives exist within the Gerstacker Academic Program.

1. The first is to do two full-time internships at businesses throughout the U.S. The vast majority of these internships are paid and consist of three or four months of employment in an organization chosen by the student in consultation with the director.

2. A second alternative is to do one internship as described above and one study abroad semester. The overseas experience could be at a foreign university in the student's second language or in English. This foreign study program would be completed during a full-time academic semester.

3. The third alternative is to do a full-time internship as in option 1 above and do an off-campus semester that includes both an academic component and an internship experience. For example, a student could take two or three courses and work 15-20 hours per week.

Academic credit is given for internships on a credit/no credit basis based on successful job performance and completion of the academic requirements of the internship, registration through Albion College and payment for one unit of credit.

Eligibility for the first internship begins with the second semester of the sophomore year. The ideal time for the study abroad experience is during the junior year. A sample sequence is shown below only for illustrative purposes. The actual sequence may vary to meet the individual needs of students. A summer session is offered after the sophomore year to make up for academic time missed during internships.

Sample Sequence of Study/Internship

YEAR

FALL

SPRING

SUMMER

Freshman

On Campus

On Campus

Free

Sophomore

On Campus

Internship

Summer School

Junior

On Campus

On Campus/Abroad

Internship

Senior

On Campus

On Campus


Special Features -- Members of the Gerstacker Institute are invited to participate in workshops aimed at building a professional portfolio and developing career search skills. In addition, the Institute each year sponsors an Ethics Symposium and hosts dozens of speakers, from numerous business fields, who share their experiences. The Briton Business Consultants is a student-run company operating under the auspices of the Institute and providing area businesses with services including feasibility studies, market research and continuous improvement projects.

Admission/Scholarships -- The Gerstacker Liberal Arts Institute for Professional Management enrolls a select number of students each year. Students considered for admission typically have shown evidence of strong leadership and intellectual abilities as well as interest in and awareness of the world around them. They have above average high school grades and standardized test scores. The application process includes completion of an essay and a personal interview with the director. Students may apply for the Institute along with, or subsequent to, applying to the College.

Students admitted to the Gerstacker Institute may be considered for scholarships which are separate from other aid awarded by Albion College. These endowed scholarships are awarded on the basis of high school academic achievement, leadership experiences and college entrance examination scores. They may be renewable each year for up to four years, contingent on a continued high level of academic performance and significant participation in Institute activities.

Due to the limitations on space and the strong interest in the Institute, early application is advised.

Apply to the Carl A. Gerstacker Liberal Arts Institute for Professional Management.

Contact the director for more information.

Liberal Arts Institute for Pre-Medical and Health Care Studies

Albion College's pre-health professions program has an excellent reputation for providing academic preparation for students wishing to enter the medical professions. The mission of the Liberal Arts Institute for Pre-Medical and Health Care Studies is to continue this fine tradition while expanding the scope of educational opportunities by integrating analysis of issues such as advances in genetic technology, ethical decision-making in a biomedical context, health insurance limitations, and the influence of cultural values on health care decisions. This exploration is accomplished through seminars, guest lectures and joint programs with other college entities.

The Liberal Arts Institute for Pre-Medical and Health Care Studies (PMHCS) supports all students who are interested in a health-related career, including but not limited to those who plan to enter the practice of medicine. PMHCS provides academic and career advising and sponsors workshops, speakers, volunteer and internship opportunities, and a variety of special programs for all pre-health students. All students accepted to Albion College who pursue pre-health studies are considered affiliates of the Institute. Affiliates of the Institute have access to a resource library with information about careers and programs.

PMHCS also has an associate membership level. These members generally apply for admission to the associate level as incoming students, but students may also apply during their first year of studies. Besides having a solid academic background, associate members have generally spent considerable time exploring their chosen career before coming to Albion. The associate membership level offers extra training and programs such as CPR courses, reading groups and ethics discussions.

With an aging population and political pressure to guarantee access to health care for all Americans, it is vital that we train individuals not only to become competent medical practitioners but also to become caring professionals who are well-versed in the issues facing the medical field. Additionally, with the increased globalization of our society, it is important for students to recognize the contribution of various cultures to our body of health care knowledge and to discuss ways in which the global disparity of access to quality medical care can be minimized. This Institute offers students their critical first steps toward becoming well-educated, compassionate medical professionals.

Curriculum -- Students are required to complete the appropriate prerequisite courses for the professional school they plan to attend. Pre-health students can major in any field and are encouraged to explore the full range of liberal arts course offerings in subjects including anthropology, sociology, economics, art, art history, psychology, history, philosophy and many other fields.

Activities -- All pre-health students have access to speakers, workshops and advising sponsored by the Institute, and they are encouraged to explore the extensive resource library maintained by the Institute. First-year associate members also participate in a colloquium series that focuses on topics in health care and career issues. Upper-level associate students participate in discussion groups, meet with speakers, and are encouraged to complete an internship and/or research projects.

Admission -- All students who come to Albion with pre-health interests are considered affiliates of the Institute. Students who wish to be associate-level members must apply for admission to the Institute. This step is usually taken as part of the application process to the College, and most members are admitted as incoming students. However, students may also apply during their first year of studies. Students are admitted based on their understanding of, and commitment to, a health-related career. Once admitted, students are expected to maintain a high level of academic performance, to continue to explore the health care field and to participate in Institute activities.

Apply to the Liberal Arts Institute for Pre-Medical and Health Care Studies.

Contact the director for more information.

Fritz Shurmur Education Institute

The Fritz Shurmur Education Institute advances the liberal arts tradition as an excellent foundation for teacher preparation. The Education Institute equips students seeking teacher certification and professional preparation with a distinctive and relevant undergraduate education that combines the following qualities: the depth of a major in a discipline; the breadth and interdisciplinary focus of an innovative core curriculum; an array of practical skills in classroom teaching; a thorough understanding of and engagement with broad issues impacting education; and the ethics of civic responsibility and affirming diversity.

The distinctive focus of the Shurmur Education Institute is to link the Albion College teacher certification program to the Albion Public Schools and other area schools in innovative and exemplary ways. This intentional engagement with area schools will enhance the preparation of Albion's teacher education students and provide opportunities for a rich multicultural experience and a more meaningful involvement with policy issues.

With support from the Shurmur Education Institute, graduates of the Albion teacher education program will become superior teachers--well-versed in their subject areas, highly skilled in sharing their knowledge with their students and dedicated to engaging their students in lifelong learning. Because of their own liberal arts perspective, they will help their students make connections among diverse fields and understand how their education relates to the world beyond the classroom. Additionally, through the Education Institute's research and scholarship activities, prospective graduates will become knowledgeable about, and involved in, educational reform at the local, state and national levels.

Requirements -- The program of study for the teacher certification program may be found in the Education Department listing. Elementary education students must complete a teaching major, a Planned Program and core education courses leading to certification in a self-contained K-5 classroom, with an option for teaching a subject area in grades 6-8. Secondary and K-12 education students must complete both a major and a minor in addition to education courses. The teaching majors and minors available at Albion College are listed in the Education Department description, and specific course requirements for each are listed under the respective academic departments in the "Departments and Courses" section. Shurmur Education Institute certification students are required to maintain a 2.7 cumulative grade point average, and a 3.0 average in their major, minor, and in other course work required for the teacher certification program.

Activities -- In addition to the teacher certification program, the Shurmur Education Institute offers other academic activities for its students. The Institute sponsors nationally known speakers, and, after lectures or performances, offers public roundtable discussions focused on topics related to education and public policy. Field trips to different educational settings allow students to experience different models of educational practice in other regions of the country or the world. The Ferguson Center for Technology-Aided Teaching helps students thoughtfully integrate the use of technology into their teaching, and offers opportunities to develop pilot projects, symposia and other structured study of academic technology.

Students are invited to partner with faculty in educational research based in, or in cooperation with, the local schools. They find encouragement and support in developing a research and scholarship agenda that addresses issues of public policy in education. Students also have the opportunity to travel to at least one professional educators' conference.

Admission -- The Education Department, working in conjunction with the Shurmur Education Institute, will admit to the teacher education program second-year students who demonstrate both a strong intellect and an ethic of caring in anticipation of entering the teaching profession. Similarly qualified students may also be admitted after the second year. In order to be accepted and placed in the teacher education and certification program, students are advised to fill out an interest form in the Education Department Office in Vulgamore Hall. Contact the director for further information on the Shurmur Education Institute and the teacher education and certification program.

Concentrations

A concentration is a program of study taken in addition to a major. The purpose of a concentration, which includes an internship, is to help a student explore specific career possibilities within the framework of a liberal arts education. Six to eight units are normally required for a concentration, including all course work and the internship. See also the concentrations affiliated with Institutes: environmental sciences, environmental studies, professional management and public service (described in the preceding section).

Environmental Science
Environmental Studies

See Institute for the Study of the Environment.

Ethnic Studies

Ethnic studies is both the comparative study of ethnicity and the study of the culture and history of particular ethnic groups within the United States. As the study of ethnicity, ethnic studies examines factors that account for the creation and maintenance of ethnic identity, the development of ethnic stereotypes and prejudice, and the quality of ethnic relations. In regard to particular ethnic groups, ethnic studies encourages the exploration of the specific histories, values and contributions of the country's many constituent groups. Ethnic studies provides the means to identify the prejudices and assumptions that have shaped traditional scholarship in the academic disciplines and to correct these biases.

The ethnic studies concentration allows students to acquire an area of expertise that will complement their major. Knowledge of ethnic traditions and ethnic relations are sought after in many fields including but not limited to politics, social services, business, law, medicine and psychology-related careers. This demand recognizes both that America is an increasingly multicultural society and that business people and professionals need to know these multiple groups in order to serve them better.

Requirements -- The ethnic studies concentration includes five or six units, to be divided as follows:

1. ETHN 103, Introduction to Ethnic Studies (one unit). All students must take Introduction to Ethnic Studies, unless exempted by the director of ethnic studies.

2. Four units of elective courses concentrating on ethnicity or particular ethnic groups. The courses, to be chosen in consultation with the director of ethnic studies, must include at least three upper-level units (defined as having a
prerequisite or as above the 100-level, depending on the department):

Native North America (Anthropology and Sociology 256)
Race and Ethnicity (Anthropology and Sociology 345)
Art as Political Action (Art History 311)
Race and Its Representation in American Art (Art History 312)
Minority Images in American Media (Communication Studies 312)
Issues in Modern Political Economy (Economics and Management 322)
Foundational Contexts of Education (Education 202)
Secondary Methods (Education 331)
Latina/o Literature (English 211)
African American Literature (English 234)
Twain and Faulkner (English 239)
Immigration in Literature (English 246)
Eighteenth-Century Culture Shocks (English 338)
Contemporary Literature (English 341)
The Problem of Race in American Literature (English 360)
French Louisiana (French 330)
Multicultural Germany (German 314)
Early America: Three Worlds Meet (History 121)
African American History from Africa to 1865 (History 242)
African American History, 1865 to the Present (History 243)
Native North America (History 256)
Slave Societies of the Americas, 1500-1900 (History 300)
Race and Nationality in American Life (History 331)
Harlem Renaissance (History 380)
History of Women in the United States, 1877-Present (History 390)
The 1960s (History 398)
Evolution of Jazz (Music 119)
Movement, Brain Development and the Classroom Teacher (Physical Education 310)
Special Education in Physical Education (Physical Education 360)
Urban Politics and Policy (Political Science 308)
Political and Social Movements (Political Science 319)
U.S. Latino/Chicano Literature and Culture (Spanish 362)

3. An ethnic studies-related internship (one-half to one unit) in the local community, in ethnic communities elsewhere in the United States, or study and research in ancestral communities or multi-ethnic communities outside the United States. (See also p. 108.)

4. ETHN 370, Ethnic Studies in Theory and Practice (one unit).

Admission -- The ethnic studies concentration is open to all students, regardless of academic major. However, students must be accepted into the program and should apply no later than the second semester of their sophomore year. For more information and an application form, contact Marcy Sacks (History), director of the concentration.

Human Services

Albion's human services concentration is designed to allow students to explore their interest in various human service careers as well as to prepare them for entry level positions upon graduation. This concentration is taken in addition to a student's academic major. Although open to any student, it will probably appeal most directly to students interested in areas such as public policy, health care, counseling, social work, community service, ministry, child care, legal aid and advocacy, and community action.

Requirements -- A total of eight units is required for the concentration. The concentration includes three important features. First, a core of five units, each focusing on a different area of competence, is required. These areas include introduction to human services and skills for human services, as well as knowledge of the individual within the lifespan, the theory and function of organizations, and the social and cultural context. A student may not take more than two core courses in his or her major.

Second, students complete at least one unit of internship. This requirement may be satisfied by either the psychology practicum or an appropriate internship which is arranged through the student's major department. The following represent possible internship sponsors: private social agencies, family-related agencies, institutions serving children and teenagers, churches and church-related institutions, crisis intervention agencies, state and local governments, and community organizations.

Third, students take a minimum of two units of supplemental courses that add depth to the internship experience. The courses are selected to complement and amplify a student's special interests, especially in relation to the internship. Existing courses have been identified as suitable supplemental courses and a list of these is available to students.

The five core areas are listed below, with a general description of each area and the designated course(s) which will fulfill the area requirement.

Introduction to Human Services -- Acquaints the beginning student with the human services field, including the philosophy, values, directions, and broad scope of the human services, and explores the student's motivation and values in relation to a career in a helping field. An interdisciplinary course is designed specifically for this area (HUSV 101).

Skills for Human Services -- Provides the student with theory, knowledge and instruction in some of the helping skills, such as listening, counseling, and small group and interpersonal communications. This area would be satisfied by one of the following:

Interpersonal and Family Communication (Communication Studies 202)
Small Group and Organizational Communication (Communication Studies 203)
Introduction to Counseling (Psychology 380)

Individual in the Life Span -- Focuses upon the content, context and transitions of different stages in human life. Provides a broadly-based knowledge of the individual. This area would be satisfied by one of the following:

The Sociology of Sex and Gender (Anthropology and Sociology 333)
Developmental Psychology (Psychology 251)

Theory and Function of Organizations -- Provides knowledge of the theory, nature, and function of organizations. Students gain an overview that can enable them to evaluate and deal critically with bureaucracy, both within and without its institutional structures. This area would be satisfied by one of the following:

Human Resource Management (Economics and Management 355)
Public Policy Analysis (Political Science 216)
Urban Politics and Policy (Political Science 308)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Psychology 246)

Social and Cultural Context -- Provides the theory and knowledge necessary to perceive the significance of social and cultural contexts for understanding diverse ways of life. This area would be satisfied by one of the following:

Race and Ethnicity (Anthropology and Sociology 345)
Social Stratification (Anthropology and Sociology 370)
Christian Ethics (Religious Studies 242)

Admission -- Admission to the human services concentration is based on genuine interest in exploring one or more of the human services areas and evidence of academic ability. Students must apply for admission to the concentration and are urged to do so in their first year at Albion, and no later than their junior year.

The Human Services Advisory Committee administers the program and the members serve as advisers to the students in the human services concentration. For more information and an application form, contact the chair of the Human Services Committee.

Law, Justice, and Society

Law is one of the most significant expressions of a society's social and political development. We live in a period of widespread public interest in law that arises from a concern with problems of social justice, social control and social deviance. The traditional academic disciplines have increasingly focused on such issues as the nature and origin of law, law-making and law-breaking, rights and obligations, and freedom and responsibility. These are matters of increasing concern to teachers, social workers, business executives, doctors and public servants whose professional responsibilities demand knowledge of the relationship of law to their own fields.

The goals of this interdisciplinary concentration are to affirm the intellectual importance of the study of law and society, and to provide a framework whereby faculty and students may explore different approaches to law by using the resources of one or more disciplines. The curriculum is designed to equip students with the knowledge to understand legal institutions, practices and ideas, and also to grasp their relationship to larger social, economic and political forces. The concentration in law, justice, and society should be seen within the context of an undergraduate liberal education. That is, it is not a preprofessional program, but is designed for interested students, whatever their future career orientation. Neither the American Bar Association (ABA) nor the American Association of Law Schools (AALS) recommends a specific course of pre-law studies. Instead, both recommend a broad-based undergraduate program of study that encourages the acquisition of critical reading, writing and analytical skills--i.e., a liberal arts education.

Requirements -- The law, justice, and society concentration will be satisfied by the completion of six units of study, as follows:

1. LWJS 101, Introduction to Law, Justice, and Society (one unit). All students must take this gateway course for the concentration, unless exempted by the director of the concentration.

2. Four units, drawn from an approved list of courses, to be chosen in consultation with the director of the concentration. No more than two of the courses can be from the student's major. The approved courses include:

History of Sociological Thought (Anthropology and Sociology 212)
Race and Ethnicity (Anthropology and Sociology 345)
Studies in Free Speech (Communication Studies 301)
Labor Law, Unions and Management (Economics and Management 353)
The Problem of Race in American Literature (English 360)
Literary Theory (English 363)
History of Women in the U.S., 1877-Present (History 240)
Slave Societies of the Americas (History 300)
Logic and Critical Reasoning (Philosophy 107)
Ethics (Philosophy 201)
Social Philosophy (Philosophy 202)
Contemporary Moral Philosophy (Philosophy 206)
Philosophical Issues in the Law (Philosophy 335)
American Political Development (Political Science 312)
Introduction to American Constitutional Law (Political Science 323)
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (Political Science 324)
Christian Ethics (Religion 242)
Feminist Theory (WGS 360)

3. A program-related internship (one unit), to be approved by the director of the concentration.

Admission--The law, justice, and society concentration is open to all students, regardless of academic major. However, because of the nature of the requirements, students are advised to apply no later than the second semester of their sophomore year. For more information and an application form, contact William Rose (Political Science), director of the concentration.

Mass Communication

This concentration is designed to supplement a chosen academic major by providing course work which focuses on issues and choices in selected mass communication areas.

Requirements -- The concentration consists of six units of credit contracted between the candidate and the director of the concentration: one required course, a one-unit internship and four units of electives. The following courses are required in the concentration:

1. Communication Studies 205, Mass Communication (one unit).

2. A writing course from the following list: English 203, 205, 207, 308, 310.

3. Internship (one or two units). Students are required to take one unit of internship but may receive credit for a two-unit internship. If a one-unit internship is selected, students may choose a directed study or another elective to fulfill the six-unit requirement. Special work experience or practicum credit may be used as internship credit with permission. All internships are taken on a credit/no credit basis and must be registered through Albion College. Tuition is charged.

A limited number of internships in a variety of mass media organizations are available to qualified students. Once accepted into the program, students should begin to plan for the internship. All students who apply for internships or practicums are expected to have a cumulative grade point average of 2.7.

4. At least three additional units from the following list of electives. With the director of the mass communication concentration, students will choose courses from the following electives to best fulfill their designated areas
of interest:

Anthropology and Sociology
366 Anthropology of Mass Culture

Art and Art History
241 Beginning Photography
341 Advanced Photography

Communication Studies
306 Public Relations
311 Environmental Communication
312 Minority Images in American Media
325 Visual Communication
351 Persuasion
301 Studies in Free Speech
365 Media Theory

English
203 Advanced Expository Writing
205 Introductory Creative Writing
207 News and Feature Writing
307, 308 Advanced News and Feature Writing
309, 310 News Editing I
321 Advanced Creative Writing

Other courses may be used for the concentration as they are offered.

Admission -- All concentrations are individually designed; therefore, students must be accepted into the program, and must contact Margaret Young (Communication Studies), the director of the mass communication concentration, by the end of their sophomore year.

Neuroscience

Albion's neuroscience concentration was designed for students who are interested in the neural underpinnings of behavior and cognition. The core courses, Neuroscience I and Neuroscience II, provide students with a multi-disciplinary, multi-divisional introduction to the study of the mind/brain that spans all levels of current neuroscientific research. The four electives allow students to pursue lines of inquiry they find especially attractive in the core courses, and a major research project or internship allows them the choice of a theoretical or practical test of their developing skills. This approach to neuroscience provides Albion students with the knowledge, insight and research skills necessary for success in graduate study or careers in the life sciences.

Curriculum -- The neuroscience concentration consists of three components.
1. Three courses required of all students in the program:

Neuroscience I (covers basic systems, behavioral and cognitive neuroscience) (NEUR 241, with prerequisite Psychology 101)
Neuroscience II (covers molecular and cellular neuroscience) (NEUR 242, with prerequisites Neuroscience 241 and Biology 195)
Chemistry 121

2. Four of the following courses, selected from at least two different departments:

Biology
301 Cell Biology
314 Comparative Anatomy
317 Genetics
324 Developmental Biology
341 General Physiology
361 Immunobiology
362 Molecular Biology
366 Endocrinology
368 Behavioral Ecology

Philosophy
306 Neuroscience and Ethics
315 Epistemology
381/401 Philosophy of Mind

Psychology
243/343 Psychology of Perception
245/345 Psychology of Learning and Memory
348 Physiological Psychology
378 Cognitive Psychology
390 Neuropsychopharmacology

3. A major research project or internship.

Admission -- The neuroscience concentration is open to all students, regardless of academic major. However, because many of the courses have prerequisites, students who elect the neuroscience concentration are typically majors in biology, chemistry or psychology. Students must be accepted into the program, and thus should contact one of the faculty members listed below for application information. Students are advised to apply by the end of their sophomore year.

For more information, please contact any one of the following faculty members: Ned Garvin (Philosophy), Barbara Keyes (Psychology), Ruth Schmitter (Biology), W. Jeffrey Wilson (Psychology).

Professional Management

See Carl A. Gerstacker Liberal Arts Institute for Professional Management.

Public Policy and Service

See Gerald R. Ford Institute for Public Policy and Service.

Women's Studies

Contemporary scholars have challenged the invisibility of women and women-focused material in traditional academic disciplines. The field of women's studies emerged as the center for these new courses and new approaches to intellectual inquiry. Women's studies examines not only women's lives but also gender systems and the intersections of gender with race, class, sexuality, age and other power systems functioning in societies. The impact of feminist scholarship is evident most clearly in the humanities, arts and social sciences. In the sciences, where women historically have been underrepresented, the influence of gender-based work is growing.

While women's studies courses are open to all students, those who wish to explore the field in-depth may complete a formal concentration.

The women's studies concentration allows students to acquire an area of expertise in addition to their major. Knowledge of gender- and women-centered issues and research is increasingly sought after in many fields including but not limited to politics, social services, business, law, medicine and psychology. This demand recognizes not only that women are increasingly important contributors in these fields but also that businesses and professions are acknowledging that they need to know this majority to better serve it.

Requirements -- The women's studies concentration includes seven units, to be divided as follows:

1. WGS 106, Introduction to Women's Studies (one unit). All students must take Introduction to Women's Studies, unless exempted by the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair.

2. WGS 360, Feminist Theory (one unit). All students must take Feminist Theory, unless exempted by the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair.

3. Two units from the following courses*:

The Anthropology of Sex and Gender (A&S 332)
The Sociology of Sex and Gender (A&S 333)
Women and Art (Art History 310)
Goddesses in Art (Art History 316)
Women in the Economy (E&M 271)
Women and Literature (English 243)
Gay and Lesbian Literature (English 285)
Victorian Sexualities (English 337)
Eighteenth Century Culture Shocks (English 338)
Redeeming Eve: Renaissance Women's Writing (English 345)
French Women Writers and Feminist Criticism (French 320)
History of Women in the U.S., 1877-present (History 240)
Women, Society and Gender in East Asia (History 365)
Women and Ethnic Minorities in Science (SCI 205)
Gender and Sport (Physical Education 279)
The Feminine in World Religions (Religious Studies 210)
Gender and Biblical Interpretation (Religious Studies 320)
Women in Hispanic Literature (Spanish 350)
Women in the American Theatre (Theatre 210)
Feminist Theatre (Theatre 371)

The preceding courses constitute the central courses in the women's studies concentration. The focus is exclusively devoted to scholarship on gender and/or women.

4. One unit from the following courses*:

Prehistoric Archaeology (A&S 241)
Foundations of Education (Education 225)
Literacy Pedagogy: Learning and Teaching Reading (Education 356)
The Age of Elizabeth (English 344)
Age of Satire (English 347)
Four American Poets (English 351)
Literary Theory (English 363)
Victorian England (History 308)
Human Sexuality (Psychology 272)

This unit will allow students to examine the impact of gender scholarship on various disciplines.

5. An internship: A one-unit internship will be approved by the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair.

6. A directed study: One unit of a directed study will be approved by the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair. Possible topics include:

Ecofeminism
Introduction to Gay/Lesbian Studies
Women and Popular Culture
Psychology of Women
Women and the Media
Women in Political Theory
Gender and African-American Women
Gender and Native American Women
Gender and Asian-American Women
Gender and Latinas
Feminism(s) and the Third World

Note:

  • Only two courses may count for the major and the women's studies concentration.
  • No more than two courses from sections 3 and 4 of the concentration may be taken in any one department.
  • Any exemptions from the requirements must be approved by the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair.
  • A course for the gender studies category requirement may count toward the concentration only if it comes from the courses listed in sections 3 and 4.

*Other courses may count in these categories. Please consult with the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair.

Admission -- Students must be accepted into the program, and thus should contact the Women's and Gender Studies Program chair by the end of their sophomore year for application information.

General Academic Regulations

In addition to the aforementioned graduation requirements, Albion College expects each student to meet the following academic regulations:

Grading System--Students are graded according to the following designations:

Grade

Quality Points

Grade

Quality Points

4.0

4.00

1.7

1.70

3.7

3.70

1.3

1.30

3.3

3.30

1.0

1.00

3.0

3.00

0.0

0.00

2.7

2.70

CR/NC

CR/NC

2.3

2.30

I

0.00 (Incomplete)

2.0

2.00

NR

No Report of a Grade

 

4--represents work outstanding in quality. The student not only shows unusual mastery of the required work for the course, but also has independently sought out and used additional related materials, demonstrating the ability to discover new data, to develop new insights and to bring them to bear on the work at hand.

 

3--represents work which is higher in quality than that of a 2.0, or more than satisfactory. The student has shown the ability and the initiative to fulfill more than the basic requirements of the course.

 

2--represents work which fulfills all of the basic requirements for the course. It means that the student has a grasp of the material and techniques or skills sufficient to proceed with more advanced courses in the area.

 

1--represents work seriously attempted but which is below the 2.0 level in quantity and quality. The student is advised not to continue advanced work in the field.

 

0--represents work unsatisfactory in either quantity or quality. It results in the student's not being able to continue with further work in the field and results in no credit, although it is recorded on the permanent record.

 

Note: intermediate grades of 3.7, 3.3, 2.7, 2.3, 1.7 and 1.3 may be awarded.

CR/NC--credit/no-credit. A credit or no-credit grade is given in a course selected for unit credit without quality points. CR is equivalent to a grade of 2.0 or better. The purpose of CR/NC is: (1) to allow students to explore new areas of study outside their majors at no risk to their grade point averages; (2) to provide a method for evaluating academic experience different from usual course work, e.g., internships. Students are limited to one unit of CR/NC per semester except for some internships and off-campus programs, and to no more than eight units in the total of 32 units required for graduation. Students should note that the College is unable to predict how graduate schools and prospective employers will evaluate CR/NC. The CR/NC grading option may only be elected up to the end of the second week of classes each semester. See the academic calendar for exact dates. The choice of CR/NC as a grading option is noted on the instructor's class roster. I--incomplete. Incomplete grades are given only because of illness or other unavoidable circumstances as approved by the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions. A grade of incomplete from the first semester of the academic year must be removed by the end of the second week of the second semester. A grade of incomplete from the second semester of the academic year must be removed within four weeks of the end of the semester. The requirements for the removal of incomplete grades from Summer College may be obtained from the Registrar's Office. At the end of the specified time period, the faculty member will assign a grade based on the amount of work satisfactorily completed. NR--no grade reported. Student needs to see instructor. AU--audit. Students are expected to attend classes, complete all assignments, etc. Students receive a numeric grade but no credit. P--work in progress. This grade is awarded only for directed study and thesis work that requires an extension of time for completion. Students must re-register for the course in their next semester of attendance. Failure to complete the work during this time will result in a grade based on the amount of work satisfactorily completed. The grade of "P" carries no quality points.

 

Grade Reports--Grades are issued at mid-semester to first-year students, all students on academic probation and other students performing below a 2.0 in a particular course. Final grades are issued to all students at the end of each semester. Final grades become a part of the official academic record of each student.

 

Withdrawal from Courses--A student may withdraw from a course up to and including the Friday of the tenth week of the semester by turning in to the Registrar's Office a request form bearing the signatures of the student's instructor and adviser. Performance in the course will be recorded on the permanent record as a grade of W. The grade of W does not carry grade point value.

 

Student Classification--Students are classified as follows:

Freshman
Sophomore
Junior
Senior

0.00-5.99 units
6.00-13.99 units
14.00-21.49 units
21.50 or more units

 

Repeat Courses--A student taking a course for the first time who receives a final grade of 0.0, 1.0, 1.3, or 1.7 may repeat said course without the permission of the student's advisor or the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions. A student wishing to repeat a course more than once may do so only with the permission of the student's adviser and the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions. Although both original and all repeated grades appear on the permanent academic record, only the most recent grade for the course is included in calculating the grade point average and in meeting graduation requirements. A student may not repeat a course in which the final grade was 2.0 or higher.

Repeat course work to improve grades must be taken at Albion; grades from another institution may not be transferred for this purpose.

 

Off-Campus and Extension Credit--Before enrolling at other accredited institutions for academic work to be applied toward the graduation requirements at Albion, students attending Albion College must secure written approval for each course from the registrar, using the Transfer Credit Approval Form. Courses taken by extension in an officially designated extension center of an accredited college or university are credited on the same basis as resident transfer credit. A maximum of two units (eight semester hours) of correspondence course work will be accepted if it is approved by the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions. (See also the residence requirements for graduation.)

 

Course Load--The standard student course load is four units per semester excluding physical education activity courses, applied music and music activity courses. The minimum student load is three units. Approval from the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions must be obtained if a student wishes to carry less than the minimum course load. A student is eligible for a course load of 4.75 or five units with a cumulative grade point average of 3.3 or greater. A student who wishes to carry an overload and does not meet this eligibility requirement must petition to carry an overload.

 

Additional tuition and fees apply for a course load above 4.5 units. If, during the first week of classes, a student drops from an overload status, a refund will be made. Following this period, if a student withdraws from a course overload, the course will remain on the student's bill as a billable unit. No refund will be made of any portion of tuition or fees related to the withdrawn course.

 

Course Schedule Changes (Dropping/Adding a Course)--All schedule changes or dropping or adding of courses must be made and confirmed either via the Albion College Information System (ACIS) or in the Registrar's Office. Changes made from the first day of classes through the first week of classes will be permitted upon application to the Registrar's Office. Normally, no changes may be made after the first week of classes. In exceptional cases it may be to the best interest of the student to adjust his/her program after the first week. Such changes will be recognized only when they have been approved in advance by the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions. It is the responsibility of the student to petition through the Registrar's Office for any change whatsoever to his/her program. The student is expected to continue with the original class schedule until changes are formally approved.

 

Class Attendance--Instructors may drop from their course any student who is registered for the course and not present during the first scheduled meeting. If a student cannot be present at the first class session, he/she must make special arrangements with the instructor prior to the first class meeting in order to maintain a place in the course. A student should always process a drop/add or schedule change form in the Registrar's Office if he/she wishes to drop a course. Furthermore, regular attendance in all classes is expected throughout the semester. Every absence from class is inevitably a loss--usually one which can never be made up. At their discretion, individual instructors may include attendance and class participation as one of the criteria for evaluation of the final grade. Students who are absent from class assume full responsibility for the loss.

Examinations -- Students are expected to be present for written examinations at the close of each semester. Students who are absent from a final examination will be allowed to take the omitted examination only if such absence is caused by illness or other unavoidable circumstances approved by the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions.

Academic Honesty -- Albion College expects its students to take responsibility for their academic endeavors. No student should act in a manner that would harm the academic atmosphere of the institution or diminish the experience of any member of the academic community. Strict standards of academic honesty apply to all academic work at Albion College. Students are expected to do their own work. Cheating on examinations or plagiarism is a clear violation of the College's standards and policies. In preparing essays, reports and other projects, any use of the words or ideas of someone else as though they were one's own constitutes plagiarism. Any student found to have violated the College's policy on academic honesty, including cheating and plagiarism, will be subject to penalties in the course and possible disciplinary sanctions, up to and including expulsion from the College. A Judicial Board finding of academic dishonesty will be noted on the student's transcript. A complete explanation of College policy and procedures concerning academic honesty may be obtained from the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs or viewed online in the Student Handbook.

Music Ensembles -- A maximum of two units of credit for participation in a music ensemble (instrumental and vocal) may be applied toward completing the 32 units required for graduation.

Physical Education and Dance -- A maximum of four activity courses (100 level, 1/4 unit) in physical education and theatre (dance) may be used toward completing the 32 units required for graduation.

Seminars -- A seminar is usually a small class dealing with a selected topic for each semester. Requirements for enrollment in seminar courses are determined by the individual department.

Directed Studies -- A directed study enables a student to do in-depth research on a topic or to carry out a creative project at a level beyond that offered in course work. Directed studies are open only to juniors and seniors and are taken in a department under the numbers 411 or 412, for either one-half or one unit. To do a directed study, a student must prepare a proposal in writing, which must be endorsed by the proposed faculty supervisor and reviewed by the department chair. The proposal must be filed with the Registrar's Office for credit to be received.

Tutorials -- In a tutorial, a student works individually with a faculty member in an area not covered by courses currently offered in a department, but at a comparable level. To do a tutorial, a student must prepare a proposal in writing, which must be endorsed by the proposed faculty supervisor and reviewed by the department chair. The proposal must be filed with the Registrar's Office for credit to be received.

Tutorials are not intended to replace regularly scheduled courses except when there is no other way program requirements can be met. A regularly scheduled course taken as a tutorial will show the notation ``T'' after the course number on a student's transcript.

Internships and Practicums -- Internship experiences offer opportunity to participate in, observe and analyze the workings of a firm, agency, or organization. These may be undertaken in a practicum class, or as individual internships, offered by a department under the numbers 391-394. Credit for internship experience varies with the placement from one-half to two units. Normally a student will not undertake an internship until the junior year.

Internships and practicums are offered on a credit/no credit basis with not more than four units of credit applying toward the 32 units required for the B.A. or the 34 units required for the B.F.A. degree. This includes internship and practicum experience completed in off-campus programs and at other accredited academic institutions. Unless the internship experience is for an approved off-campus program, a maximum of two units of internship credit may be earned in one semester. All students who apply for an internship or practicum are expected to have a cumulative grade point average of 2.7.

Departmental Honors -- Qualified departmental majors may present papers to be considered for departmental honors. Normally such students will have a grade point average of 3.0 or higher in their major department and will have conducted the work as part of a directed study. A student whose grade point average is lower than 3.0, but whose work promises a thesis of high quality, may petition the major department for permission to submit a thesis. A student whose thesis is accepted by the department and registered with the director of the Honors Institute will graduate with "departmental honors."

Graduation Recognition -- Three grades of recognition are conferred upon graduation from Albion College. For students graduating in 2006 and after, cum laude is granted to those who have a cumulative grade point average of 3.5; magna cum laude is granted to those who have a cumulative grade point average of 3.75; and summa cum laude is granted to those who have a cumulative grade point average of 3.9 or above. A student must complete at least 12 units and three semesters of study at Albion College to be considered for graduation recognition.

Graduation Honors -- Students who successfully complete Albion's Honors Institute and maintain a grade point average of 3.5 will graduate "with Albion College honors.''

Transcripts -- Official transcripts are maintained by the Registrar's Office on all academic work attempted at Albion College. Students may request in writing individual copies of their record or request that copies of their record be mailed to other parties. All requests must bear the signature of the student. Transcripts will not be released for students who have past due accounts with the College.

Transfer Credit -- In order for work to be considered for transfer credit, a student must submit an official transcript of the completed course(s) to Albion College. The Registrar's Office will evaluate each course on the following basis: its liberal arts nature, comparability to courses taught at Albion College, and the grade earned. No courses in which the student earned below a 2.0 (on a 4.0 scale) will be considered for transfer credit. One Albion unit equals four semester hours or six quarter hours. Therefore, three semester hours equal three-quarters of a unit, three quarter hours equal one-half of a unit. Any transfer work which the student requests to be considered for his/her major must be approved in writing by the department chair. All transfer credit must be approved by the Registrar's Office.

Accepted transfer credit is recorded on the student's official Albion College transcript indicating where the work was completed, when the work was completed and the number of Albion units earned. No grades are recorded, and transfer credit is not reflected in a student's grade point average.

Graduation Requirements

A student graduates from Albion College after meeting a series of requirements including course work, satisfactory grade point average, a major, residency and others as outlined under specific degree requirements stated below. Students generally graduate after eight semesters.

Bachelor of Arts Degree (B.A.)

The degree of bachelor of arts (B.A.) is conferred upon students who have met all of the following requirements for graduation:

Minimum Units--Students must complete a minimum of 32 units (128 semester hours) of course work to graduate. An Albion unit is equivalent to four semester hours. Included in the total are the core requirement described earlier, courses leading to the major(s) and minor(s), and elective courses which make up one-half to one-third of each student's total courses. There are limits on the number of physical education activity courses, music ensembles and internships that may count toward graduation. Normally students complete degree requirements within eight semesters. If students have not completed graduation requirements within eight graded semesters, they must petition the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions for permission to continue enrollment for each additional semester needed to complete requirements.

Grade Point Average--To qualify for the bachelor of arts degree, a student must have a 2.0 grade point average in all course work. A minimum 2.0 grade point average in one major field is also required for graduation. Students should note that to earn the designation of a second major, a 2.0 grade point average also must be achieved in that major. A department also may require additional demonstration of competence (minimum course grade requirements, comprehensive examination, senior recital or the like) to complete a major. Graduating students (2006 and after) earning a 3.5 cumulative grade point average or higher qualify for graduation recognition as described under the Academic Honors and Activities section.

Core Requirement--Graduating students must have completed the core requirement.

Writing Competence Requirement--Students must pass the Writing Competence Examination to graduate.

Majors and Minors--Students must declare at least one major but no more than two majors prior to graduation. Although students may declare a major as early as the freshman year, this is generally done during the sophomore year. Students may fulfill the major requirement in one of three ways: departmental major, interdepartmental major and individually designed major. The maximum number of units required for a departmental major is 10 units in that department and an additional four units in other departments. No more than 16 units in any one department may be counted toward graduation. (A language major in the Foreign Languages Department means that no more than 10 units are required in the specific language declared as the major.) Further information on interdepartmental and departmental majors may be found in the Departments and Courses section of this catalog, while the individually designed major is described in the Academic Programs section. Students also have the option to declare a minor. Further information appears in the Academic Programs section and in the Departments and Courses section.

Residence Requirement--To be a candidate for an Albion College degree, a student must complete the last 12 units in residence. Students who have earned six units at Albion prior to the beginning of their senior year may elect out of residence two units of the last 12 units required for graduation. All other students must complete their last 12 units of work in residence. Residence is defined as academic work completed on campus, in combined course programs, approved internships, or through off-campus programs approved by the Off-Campus Programs Advisory Committee.

Application for Degree--Graduating students must file an Application for Degree in the Registrar's Office the year previous to graduation.

Application for Second Degree--If a student who has already earned a baccalaureate degree from a college or university applies to earn a second degree from Albion College, the student will be required to meet the resident requirements for all transfer students.

Participation in Commencement Exercises--Students who are within three units of the minimum graduation requirements for the B.A. degree may petition for permission to participate in commencement exercises.

Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree (B.F.A.)

Bachelor of fine arts students must complete a minimum of 34 units (136 semester hours) of course work to graduate. Included in this total are the core requirement and at least 16 but not more than 21 units in visual arts. In addition, B.F.A. candidates must fulfill the writing competence requirement and the requirements on grade point average, residence and application for degree described in the preceding section on the bachelor of arts degree.

Students who are within three units of the minimum graduation requirement for the B.F.A. degree may petition for permission to participate in commencement exercises.

For more specific requirements, refer to the Department of Art and Art History section of the catalog.

Academic Status

The academic record of each student is reviewed at the close of the fall and spring semesters by the Committee on Academic Status and Petitions. Specific attention is given to the student's progress in maintaining the minimum 2.0 cumulative grade point average that is required for graduation from the College. Students who fail to demonstrate satisfactory progress toward graduation may be required to withdraw from the College. The committee determines academic status and is guided in its decisions by the following standards:

Good Standing -- A student whose semester and cumulative grade point averages are 2.0 or above is considered to be in good standing.

Semester Probation -- A student who has a semester grade point average below 2.0 for one semester and has a cumulative grade point average above 2.0 will be placed on semester probation.

Academic Probation -- A student is placed on academic probation whenever his/her cumulative grade point average falls below the 2.0 level, or when the semester average falls below a 2.0 for two consecutive semesters, even though the cumulative average remains a 2.0 or above.

Terminal Academic Probation -- Some students, because of their extremely low grade point averages, are classified under terminal academic probation and given a specific grade point average to obtain for their work during the following semester. A student who fails to meet the requirements of terminal academic probation may be subject to required academic withdrawal.

Required Academic Withdrawal -- A student is subject to academic withdrawal if his or her academic progress does not meet either of the following minimums at the end of the semester listed:

1.00 with a minimum of 3 units completed at the end of the first semester of attendance;

1.62 with a minimum of 6 units completed at the end of the second semester of attendance;

1.75 with a minimum of 9 units completed at the end of the third semester of attendance;

1.81 with a minimum of 13 units completed at the end of the fourth semester of attendance;

1.90 with a minimum of 17 units completed at the end of the fifth semester of attendance;

2.00 with a minimum of 21 units completed at the end of the sixth semester of attendance;

2.00 with a minimum of 25 units completed at the end of the seventh semester of attendance.

A student is also subject to academic withdrawal if he or she fails to obtain a minimum semester grade point average of 2.0 for work in three consecutive semesters, or meet the requirements of terminal academic probation.

Other Policies on Academic Status

Veteran's Requirements -- A veteran or eligible person receiving VA benefits cannot be certified by Albion College as a student making satisfactory progress towards a degree if this student is on academic probation longer than two semesters. VA benefits will cease after two semesters of probation. The Veteran's Administration will be notified of any veteran who fails a course or who is not making satisfactory progress. In order to be recertified for veteran's benefits the student must remove all quality point deficiencies and earn a cumulative grade point average of 2.0.

Leave of Absence -- Leave of absence is a privilege extended to those who desire to interrupt, but not to discontinue permanently, their enrollment from Albion for one or two semesters. Applications must be made in writing to the vice president for student affairs prior to the semester in which the student wishes the leave of absence. A student who is granted a leave of absence may participate in enrollment procedures of regularly enrolled students for such considerations as registration, room lottery and applications for financial assistance. The student is expected to return to Albion following leave.

Voluntary Withdrawal from College -- Students who wish to withdraw from the College during the semester (i.e., withdrawing after enrollment has been completed at the beginning of a semester and before the completion of final exams) should initiate the withdrawal process by contacting the Student Affairs Office and submitting a Student Withdrawal Form.

Readmission -- Graduates or former students may apply for readmission to the College at the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs. Applications for readmission are to be submitted at least one month prior to the beginning of the semester in which the student wishes to return. Students are charged a readmission fee of $50.

Nondegree Status (Special Student Status) -- Applies to students enrolled for special programs designed to fill particular needs but not usually leading toward graduation. This status normally applies only to students at the freshman or sophomore level. Re-enrollment as a nondegree student is dependent upon the maintenance of a minimum grade of 2.0 in each course in which the student is enrolled. A nondegree student must submit appropriate credentials to the Admissions Office one month in advance of registration. Nondegree students who wish to become candidates for the bachelor of arts degree must formally apply for admission to the College.

Catalog of Entry -- Though departmental and graduation requirements of the College may change while a student is enrolled, it is expected that each student will meet the requirements outlined in the catalog that is in effect at the time he or she entered Albion. The "catalog of entry" philosophy is considered applicable for students who leave the College and whose interrupted course of study is not longer than five years.

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