Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol/Drug Abuse
Substance Use Disorders (as summarized from DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria)
Dependence- recurrent substance use resulting in at least 3 of the following symptoms in a 12-month period:
- Tolerance- a need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve desired effect OR significant decrease in effect using the same amount.
- Withdrawal- as shown by the specific symptoms characteristic of a particular substance OR using a substance to avoid or relieve the particular withdrawal symptoms.
- The substance is taken in larger amounts or over longer periods of time.
- Persistent desire to control the substance use is unsuccessful.
- Considerable time is spent associated with the substance, i.e. obtaining, using, etc.
- Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are reduced or avoided.
- Continued use despite knowledge of having recurrent physical or psychological problems caused by the substance, i.e. depression or ulcer.
Abuse- recurrent substance use resulting in significant impairment or distress expressed by 1 or more of the following in a 12-month period (and the symptoms have never met the criteria for dependence).
- Failure to meet obligations at work, school, or home, i.e. repeated absences, expulsion, etc.
- Using in hazardous conditions, i.e. while driving.
- Legal problems, i.e. arrests.
- Continued use despite creation or exacerbation of social or interpersonal problems.