Refund Policy 06-07

If a student withdraws or is suspended or expelled from Albion College, then the student may be eligible for a refund of a portion of the tuition, fees, room and board paid to Albion College for that semester. If the student received financial assistance from outside of the family, then a portion of the refund will be returned to the grant, scholarship or loan source from which that assistance was received.

If a student plans to withdraw, then the student should complete the Student Withdrawal Form, available from the Student Affairs Office, to begin the withdrawal process. This procedure will enable Albion College to refund the maximum possible institutional charges.

Two formulas exist for determining the amount of the credit: Albion's refund policy and a federal formula (Return of Title IV Aid) derived from the 1998 reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. The federal formula is applicable to any student receiving federal aid other than Federal Work-Study if that student withdraws on or before completing 60 percent of the semester. These students may also receive a refund of non-federal aid through Albion's refund policy. Students not receiving federal aid will have their refund calculated using only Albion's refund policy.

Albion's refund policy is as follows: Students who withdraw from Albion College may receive a pro-rated refund of tuition and board fees, according to the following schedule:


Institutional Refund


Institutional Refund

1 75% tuition/pb* 7-14 Pro-rated board
2-6 40% tuition/pb* 15-16 No refund

*Pb=pro-rated board fees

The federal formula provides for a return of Title IV aid if the student received federal financial assistance in the form of a Pell Grant, Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant, Perkins Loan, Federal Family Educational Loan Program or PLUS loan and withdrew on or before completing 60 percent of the semester. The percentage of the return is equal to the number of calendar days remaining in the semester divided by the total number of calendar days in the semester. Scheduled vacation periods of more than four days are excluded.

If any refund remains after the return of Title IV aid, the refund will be used to repay Albion College funds, state funds, other private sources and the student in proportion to the amount received from each non-federal source if there was no unpaid balance due at the time of withdrawal. If there was an unpaid balance, then all aid sources will be repaid before any money is paid to the student.

If funds were released to a student because of a credit balance on the student's account, then the student may be required to repay some of the federal grants or loans released to the student.

Students who have questions about the refund policy should contact the Financial Aid Office.


Departments and Courses

Departmental Information
All of the departmental information contained in this section of the Academic Catalog was accurate as of May 1, 2006. Any departmental changes made after that date will not be reflected here. Information on changes may be obtained from the respective department or from the Registrar's Office in the Ferguson Student, Technology, and Administrative Services Building.

Course Numbering System
The following lists include all courses normally offered at Albion College. However, not all courses are offered every year. When possible, courses offered in alternate years are designated. For details, students should consult the Class Schedule for each semester, available online at: The College reserves the right to add or withdraw courses without prior announcement, as conditions may require.

Unless otherwise stated, 100 level courses are intended for freshmen, 200 level for sophomores, 300 and 400 level for juniors and seniors.

A list of courses which meet the core and category requirements, organized by departments, is available online at

Further information may be obtained at the Registrar's Office in the Ferguson Student, Technology, and Administrative Services Building.



W. Jeffrey Wilson, chair and professor.
B.A., 1977, Haverford College; M.A., 1978, Ph.D., 1983, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed 1999.

Andrew N. Christopher, associate professor.
B.B.A., 1992, Stetson University; M.B.A., 1994, Southern Methodist University; M.S., 1996, Ph.D., 1999, University of Florida. Appointed 2001.

Holger B. Elischberger, assistant professor.
B.A., 1993, M.A., 1998, University of Würzburg; Ph.D., 2004, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Appointed 2005.

Ned S. Garvin, professor.
B.A., 1970, University of Colorado; M.A., 1972, Ph.D., 1974, Boston University. Appointed to Department of Philosophy, 1974; joint appointment in Psychology and Philosophy, 2001.

Tammy J. Jechura, assistant professor.
B.S., 1994, Bowling Green State University; M.A., 1999, Ph.D., 2002, University of Michigan. Appointed 2004.

Barbara J. Keyes, professor.
B.A., 1970, College of Wooster; M.A., 1973, Ph.D., 1976, Bowling Green State University. Appointed 1975.

Jamie L. Walter, assistant professor.
B.A., 1992, St. Mary's College of Maryland; Ph.D., 2001, University of Maine. Appointed 2001.

Mark I. Walter, assistant professor.
B.A., 1989, University of Colorado; M.A., 1996, Ph.D., 1999, University of Maine. Appointed 2003.

Mareike B. Wieth, assistant professor.
B.A., 1999, Kenyon College; M.A., 2001, Ph.D., 2005, Michigan State University. Appointed 2006.


Psychology deals with the behavior and experience of humans (and other animals) and also considers the person and his or her relation to other individuals or groups. As a discipline, psychology spans the natural and social sciences and is based on rigorous scientific analysis and methodologies. Specialty areas represented in the department include clinical, cognitive, developmental, industrial/organizational, physiological, and social psychology, as well as philosophy of the mind.

Students who major in psychology are expected to become involved in research through laboratory courses, directed study projects and honors theses. These undergraduate research opportunities teach students to develop testable questions and hypotheses, operationally define independent and dependent variables, gather and analyze data, interpret results and write research reports using APA format, all of which are skills that are valued in many work settings and necessary for graduate study. Finally, in both lecture and laboratory courses as well as in our research with students, the Psychology Department emphasizes the importance of critical thinking, communication and computer skills.

Psychology Department Web site

Career Opportunities

The Psychology Department offers a variety of courses designed to prepare students for graduate work in psychology as well as for positions in industrial research, human services settings and secondary education. The psychology major at Albion College also provides an excellent preparation for a variety of other professional areas, including law, medicine, business, etc.
During their junior and senior years, students are able to participate in the department's internship program (Psychology Practicum) which allows them to work in a variety of field settings (e.g., mental hospitals, juvenile homes, counseling centers, schools and human resource departments) and test various career options. They also are encouraged to conduct independent research projects that, in many cases, culminate in an honors thesis.

Special Features

Because the department has made a firm commitment to research, upper-level students are strongly encouraged to make use of Olin Hall's laboratory facilities for investigating human memory, psychophysiology, perception, language, learning, motivation and developmental/social processes in collaboration with faculty. Instruction in the Psychology Department includes lecture and class discussion as well as laboratory experiences. Computers are used in many courses for data analysis, experiments and simulations.

Our major has been approved as a certifiable secondary school teaching major by the State Department of Education.

Albion maintains a chapter of Psi Chi, the national psychology honorary society.

Requirements for Major

A minimum of nine units in psychology, including Psychology 101, 204, 206 and 396.
At least three courses from Lists I and II (at least one course must be taken from each list and at least two courses must be at the 300-level).

Psyc 236: Social Psychology Psyc 241: Neuroscience I
Psyc 251: Developmental Psychology Psyc 243: Psychology of Perception (343)
Psyc 265: Abnormal Psychology (365) Psyc 245: Psychology of Learning (345)
Psyc 267: Psychology of Personality (367) Psyc 348: Research in Behavioral Neuroscience
Psyc 336: Research in Social Psychology Psyc 378: Cognitive Psychology (278)
Psyc 351: Research in Developmental Psychology

Please note that some courses in Lists I and II can be offered as lecture-based or laboratory-based courses. Lecture-based courses are taught at the 200-level and have only one prerequisite (Psychology 101); laboratory-based courses are taught at the 300-level and have additional prerequisites. Students may enroll for a course that is lecture-based, or laboratory-based, but may not enroll for the same course twice, once lecture-based and once laboratory-based.

  • All courses for the major must be taken for a numerical grade except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • Participation in the department's assessment activities is required.

Requirements for Minor

  • A minimum of five units in psychology, including Psychology 101, 204 and 206.
  • At least one course from List I and one course from List II.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for numerical grades except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Requirements for Major With Secondary Education Certification

  • A minimum of nine units in psychology, as specified above.
  • Psychology 251 (351) counts toward education certification requirements and may not be counted toward the psychology major.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Minor With Secondary Education Certification

  • A minimum of five units in psychology, including Psychology 101, 204 and 206.
  • One course from List I and one course from List II.
  • Psychology 251 (351) counts toward education certification requirements, and may not be counted toward the psychology minor.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for numerical grades except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.


101 Introduction to Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Covers the principal areas of psychology. Participation in faculty-supervised experiments required of students over age 17. Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other psychology courses. Staff.

204 Research Design and Analysis I (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or permission of instructor. An introduction to the theory and practice of research methods in psychology with an emphasis on descriptive designs. Focuses on naturalistic, archival and survey methodology with discussion of descriptive statistics, probability, Chi-square, z-scores, correlation and multiple regression. Lecture and laboratory. Course normally taken during second year. ($25 laboratory fee.) Christopher, Jechura, M. Walter, Staff.

206 Research Design and Analysis II (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 204, or permission of instructor. Further exploration of the theory and practice of research methods in psychology with an emphasis on experimental designs. Focuses on both simple and complex designs with discussion of z-test, t-test, ANOVA (one-way, repeated measures and factorial) and MANOVA. Lecture and laboratory. Course normally taken during second year. ($25 laboratory fee.) Christopher, Jechura, M. Walter, Staff.

230 Health Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. The role of behavior in the prevention of disease and in the enhancement of health. Looks at behavior in relation to stress, pain, cardiovascular disease, cancer, alcohol abuse, weight control, psychoneuroimmunology. Contrasts biomedical and biopsychosocial approaches to health and disease. Not offered every year. Jechura.

236 Social Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 204 recommended. The scientific study of the ways people think, feel and behave in social situations. Topics include self-perception and self-presentation, person perception, stereo-typing and prejudice, interpersonal attraction and close relationships, altruism, aggression, attitudes and persuasion, conformity, and group processes. Also examines theory and research in several applied areas of social psychology, including law and health. Christopher, M. Walter, Staff.

241 Neuroscience I: Brain Structure and Function (1) Fall
Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Biology 195, or permission of instructor. An introduction to brain structure and function. Emphasis on the way the nervous system is organized to process information, construct representations of the world and generate adaptive behavior. Lecture, discussion, dissection. Same as NEUR 241. Garvin, Keyes, Schmitter, Wilson.

246 Industrial and Organizational Psychology (1) Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101, or permission of instructor. Deals with personnel selection, evaluation and employee training and development. Emphasizes criterion development, motivation, job satisfaction, leadership and conflict resolution in industrial and organizational settings. Christopher.

251 Developmental Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Focuses on physical, cognitive, social and emotional development with emphasis on the periods of infancy, childhood and adolescence. Reviews methods for studying the developing person and major theoretical approaches. Elischberger, Keyes, J. Walter, Staff.

260 Psychology of Language (1) Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Examines the relationship between the uniquely human cognitive capacity of language and other cognitive processes. Acquisition, comprehension, production and utilization are studied with particular reference to structure and meaning. Not offered every year. Staff.

265 (365) Abnormal Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite for 265: Psychology 101. Prerequisite for 365: At least 2.0 in Psychology 206, or permission of instructor. Reviews major theories of abnormal behavior as well as related techniques of diagnosis and therapy; considers various emotional/behavior problems (e.g., schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and depressions). Offered occasionally as 365, Abnormal Psychology with laboratory. Keyes.

267 (367) Psychology of Personality (1) Spring
Prerequisite for 267: Psychology 101. Prerequisite for 367: Psychology 206, or permission of instructor. Examines the major theories of personality. Attention is given to the relevance of each personality theory to the students' own personality development. Offered occasionally as 367, Psychology of Personality with laboratory. Staff.

272 Human Sexuality (1) Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Examines human sexuality from numerous viewpoints, with an emphasis on the psychological. Explores social and personal sex-related issues. Staff.

289, 389 Selected Topics (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite for 289: Psychology 101. Prerequisite for 389: Psychology 101 or permission of instructor. Focuses on the contributions psychologists have made to current issues. Topics offered recently have included Psychology of Women and Psychology and the Law. May be taken more than once for credit. Staff.

304 Psychological Assessment (1) Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 204. The principles of psychological assessment and the general process of clinical diagnosis. Deals with the construction, evaluation, administration and interpretation of widely-used measuring instruments. Offered in alternate years. Staff.

336 Research in Social Psychology (1) Fall
Prerequisites: Psychology 206 and 236, or permission of instructor. Focuses on either social cognitive processes or interpersonal relations. Guides the upper-division student through an intensive review of social psychological theory in either social cognition or interpersonal relations. Emphasizes how to assess and employ methodologies that affect explanations, interpretations and applications of human social cognition and behavior. Laboratory work stresses the inextricable link between theory, methodology and statistical analyses. Projects relating to one of these two areas closely parallel the process of professional research in social psychology. ($25 laboratory fee.) Christopher, Staff.

343 (243) Psychology of Perception (1) Fall
Prerequisite for 343: Psychology 206, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for 243: Psychology 101. Operation of sensory systems and major principles of perception. Addresses the classical question, "Why do things look as they do?'' Lecture and laboratory. Not offered every year. Offered occasionally as 243, Psychology of Perception lecture only. Staff.

345 (245) Psychology of Learning (1) Spring
Prerequisite for 345: Psychology 206 or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for 245: Psychology 101. A survey of major concepts and issues in conditioning, learning and memory processes. Emphasizes research dealing with the ways learning and memory interact with other variables such as development and species-typical behavior. Lecture and laboratory. Not offered every year. Offered occasionally as 245, Psychology of Learning lecture only. Staff.

348 Research in Behavioral Neuroscience (1) Spring
Prerequisites: Psychology 206 and 241, or permission of instructor. Examines the methodology of behavioral neuroscience research. Focuses on a review of the major means by which brain/behavior relations can be determined (i.e., lesion, stimulation and recording studies) as well as an examination of much that has been learned using these procedures. Laboratory work covers at least two of these procedures in detail: human electrophysiology and either a lesion or stimulation experiment in rats. ($25 laboratory fee.) Wilson.

351 Research in Developmental Psychology (1) Spring
Prerequisites: Psychology 206 and 251, or permission of instructor. Focuses on either social/emotional development or cognitive development in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Covers issues of ethics in research, rapport-building and subject-recruitment. Emphasizes research techniques (design, data collection, analysis and write-up) used in the study of development. Laboratory work includes hands-on experience with children. ($25 laboratory fee.) Elischberger, J. Walter.

353 Psychology of Adolescence (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisites: Psychology 101 and 251, or permission of instructor. Examines the psychological, physical, historical and social forces from early adolescence to young adulthood. Major topics include physical, cognitive and social/ emotional development, as well as identity formation, ethnicity, adolescent sexuality, health, delinquency and the impact of schools. J. Walter.

378 (278) Cognitive Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisites for 378: Psychology 101 and 206. Prerequisite for 278: Psychology 101. 204 recommended. A review of recent studies of attention, memory, concept formation, problem solving and related areas. Focuses on the ability of humans to select, code, store, organize and retrieve information. Lecture and laboratory. ($25 laboratory fee.) Offered occasionally as 278, Cognitive Psychology lecture only. Staff.

380 Introduction to Counseling (1) Fall
Prerequisites: Psychology 101, and 267 or 367. A study of the major theories and current approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Emphasizes important communication skills necessary in providing a helping relationship to another person. Opportunity is provided through videotape for students to learn and practice some of these basic skills. Staff.

390 Neuropsychopharmacology (1) Fall
Prerequisite: Psychology 241, 248 or 348, or permission of instructor. Examines the effects of drugs (recreational, therapeutic and experimental) on the physiology of the nervous system and on behavior in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which behavior is controlled by the brain. Introduces the methods and conclusions of modern neuroscience research as it relates to the pharmacology of behavior. Wilson.

395 Forensic Psychology (1) Fall
Explores the psychology of criminal behavior, from causes through prevention or intervention and ending with punishment and rehabilitation. Provides an understanding of the criminal mind, based on knowledge of developmental and abnormal psychology. Bujdos.

396 History and Philosophy of Psychology (1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or permission of instructor. Examines the emergence of modern psychology from seventeenth century speculations about the mind and its relation to physical nature. Survey of the major psychological schools and their assumptions about the subject matter and methods of psychology. Garvin, M. Walter, Staff.

398, 399 Practicum (1/2, 1) Fall, Spring, Summer
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor and declared psychology major or human services concentration, junior or senior standing. Supervised experience in an applied setting and the opportunity to reflect upon and evaluate this experience in a weekly group meeting. May be repeated once. Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Keyes.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1) Fall, Spring
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. The study of a specific problem area in the discipline. Recent examples of topics include Psychology of Women and Men, History of Psychology, Psychology and Law, and Culture and Cognition. Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1) Fall, Spring
Highly recommended for majors. Admission is by permission of instructor. Staff.

416 Senior Research Seminar (1) Spring
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Guides students completing a senior thesis through all aspects of the research process. Focuses on data analysis, interpretation and writing up the results of student research projects. Considers both theoretical and practical research issues. Staff.

Religious Studies


Selva J. Raj, chair and Stanley S. Kresge Professor of Religious Studies.
B.A., 1975, Calcutta University; M.Ph., 1981, Jnana Deepa Vidyapeeth; Ph.D., 1994, University of Chicago. Appointed 1995.

Jocelyn McWhirter, assistant professor.
B.A., 1982, Trinity College; M.A., 1991, Trinity Episcopal School for Ministry; Ph.D., 2002, Princeton Theological Seminary. Appointed 2006.

Ronney B. Mourad, assistant professor.
B.A., 1994, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; M.A., 1995, University of Chicago; Ph.D., 2002, University of Chicago. Appointed 2001.

Mark L. Soileau, instructor.
B.A., 1998, University of Houston; M.A., 2002, Ankara University; M.A., 2002, Ph.D. candidate, University of California, Santa Barbara. Appointed 2006.


The study of religion is at the heart of a liberal arts education. Together with the other humanities and the social sciences, the study of religion helps one understand spiritual dimensions of the world and our roles as human beings in it.

Our Departmental Mission--Religion has always been an important component in human history. In its many configurations religion has played a critical role in shaping diverse and distinctive forms of culture and has also been shaped by culture. We seek to stimulate in students an appreciation of the spiritual teachings, ethical principles, myths, symbols and rituals of a variety of societies, believing that in them we encounter legitimate human attempts to envision the sacred and to live in the world as a spiritual arena. Conscious of Albion's heritage as a college related to the United Methodist Church, we give special attention to the monotheistic traditions in the development of our Western culture and intellectual life.

Contemporary society sometimes represents religion only as a set of subjective beliefs. Because of this misrepresentation, people may view themselves or others as fundamentalists or atheists without understanding the variety of spiritual expressions and their roles in society over the course of history. While not required at Albion, we believe that the study of religion is central to the liberal arts experience as a means of gaining a broader understanding of the depth of one's own and others' religious beliefs and practices.

Since we are concerned with the academic study of religion, our department does not promote any particular, narrow "brand'' of theology or spirituality. We subscribe to the assertion made by Friedrich Max Muller who said, "Whoever knows only one religion, does not know religion.'' We encourage our students to explore religion using various modes of analysis, including historical-critical, philosophical and comparative approaches that keep the life of the mind and the life of the soul in creative tension.

The training and interests of our faculty include several areas: biblical languages (Hebrew and Greek); biblical and related ancient Near-Eastern literature; Syro-Palestinian archaeology; comparative religion; myth, symbol, and ritual; philosophy of religion; philosophical theology; ethics and society; religion and the arts; Asian religions; and religion and ecology. We work closely with interested students in planning and completing directed studies, pursuing internships, preparing individualized research projects resulting in a thesis, and in exploring career options.

Religious Studies Department Web site

Career Opportunities

Whether a student chooses to major in religious studies, or includes it as part of a double or individually-designed major, he or she will be introduced to those aspects of a liberal arts education that aid in the development of insight, flexibility and commitment within a changing world.

Many of our students pursue further studies after Albion, in professional schools, theological seminaries or graduate programs. The religious studies faculty works closely with students who plan to attend seminary in helping them develop an appropriate pre-seminary course of studies, as well as with students who are looking into a career in the human services.
Students entering professional schools after graduation benefit from training in religious studies, since religious beliefs, practices and values influence most major social institutions. Religious studies students pursuing career opportunities in law, medicine or business have the educational background to understand these influences and their implications for professional practice.
Theological seminaries prepare persons for a variety of positions, including pastoral ministry, counseling, religious education, youth work, institutional chaplaincies, administration and mission work (home and overseas).

Graduate programs in religious studies lead to M.A., Ph.D., or Th.D. degrees, which are usually associated with teaching careers. There are also dual competency programs that link the study of religion to the study of law, social services, art and/or music, journalism, urban ministries and counseling.

Special Features

The John and Williemay Cheek Award is a cash award presented each year to the outstanding senior in the department. Book awards are given to graduating majors. Note: Students who major in religious studies at Albion are not disqualified from receiving federal or state need-based financial aid.

Requirements for Major

  • A minimum of eight units in religious studies, including Religious Studies 101--Introduction to Western Religions, and Religious Studies 102--Introduction to Eastern Religions. The major must include at least six other units, selected on the basis of a student's post-graduate interests. (See the description of "Tracks for the Major" below.) No more than four 100-level courses can be counted for the major.
  • All courses for the major must be taken for a numerical grade. Exceptions to this policy must be approved by the department faculty.

Students may choose one of two tracks for the major: a general track or a graduate studies track.

General Track--This track is intended for students with a broad interest in religious studies, or who may be planning a career in ordained ministry, social work or other work in the field of human services. Requirements of the General Track: Religious Studies 101, 102, one course in each of the three areas in religious studies at Albion listed below, and at least three other courses, chosen in consultation with a religious studies faculty adviser.

Graduate Studies Track--This track is intended for students planning to continue religious studies at the graduate level. Requirements of the Graduate Studies Track: Religious Studies 101, 102, one course in each of the three areas in religious studies at Albion listed below and at least three other courses, chosen from the single area in which a student intends to do graduate studies. Students electing the graduate studies track for the major must register for at least one unit of directed study for advanced research in their senior year or before.


(1) Biblical and Jewish Studies
Current courses in this area include: 121, 122, 215, 221, 320, 321, 322.

(2) Theology and Ethics
Current courses in this area include: 131, 232, 234, 242, 250, 270.

(3) Asian and Comparative Religions
Current courses in this area include: 210, 211, 212, 288/289, 311, 313, 363.

Requirements for Minor

  • Minimum of five units, including 101, 102 and three additional units, two of which must be above the 100-level.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for a numerical grade. Exceptions to this policy must be approved by the department faculty.


Note: Courses in religious studies carry no prerequisites unless specified under the course listing. The 101 and 102 courses do, however, provide useful background for other courses in the department and thus are recommended for students who may elect more than one course in the department.

101 Introduction to Western Religions (1) Fall, Spring
An introduction to major Western religions as represented by Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Topics include the nature of religion and religious experience in the West; origins and development of each major religion; sacred literature, formative myths, symbols and fundamental tenets; forms of religious expression, spirituality and worship; and the relationship to the world as seen in ethical orientations and institutions. Mourad, Staff.

102 Introduction to Eastern Religions (1) Fall, Spring
An introduction to major Eastern religions as represented by Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Topics include the nature of religion and religious experience in the East; origins and development of each major religion; sacred literature, formative myths, symbols and fundamental tenets; forms of religious expression, spirituality and worship; and the relationship to the world as seen in ethical orientations and institutions. Raj.

104 Introduction to Islam (1) Fall, Spring
Offers an introduction to the beliefs and practices of Islam in its various manifestations, with additional emphasis on the history, politics and gender issues that have both influenced and been influenced by Islam. Analyzes the information, and misinformation, on Islam as presented in the news media and on the Internet. Soileau.

121 History, Literature and Religion of the Old Testament (1) Fall
A developmental study of the major events, individuals and central religious and ethical ideas of ancient Israel, based on the literature of the Hebrew Bible and relevant data from the archaeology and history of the ancient Near East. Staff.

122 History, Literature and Religion of the New Testament (1) Spring
The New Testament and other writings of the early Christian period studied as literary, historical and ethical-religious sources for an understanding of Jesus, Paul and the emerging Christian movement. Staff.

131 Introduction to Christian Thought (1) Fall, Spring
Classical themes and modern variations: emotion and reason, world and God, death and self-transcendence, guilt and forgiveness, meaninglessness and the sense of the holy. Mourad.

210 The Feminine in World Religions (1) Fall
Seeks to identify, through a careful examination of abundant cross-cultural data, the religious universals and the cultural and historical particulars of the feminine in world religions. Addresses two basic questions: Are there differences in women's experiences across various religions, cultures and time periods? What are the limitations and problems inherent in the application of one culturally conditioned interpretive model (for example, the Western feminist model) toward the understanding of women's religious experience in other cultures? Raj.

211 Hinduism (1) Fall
Indian philosophical world views, ritual expressions and moral orientations: Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Vedanta. Offered occasionally. Raj.

212 Buddhism (1) Spring
Indian, Chinese and Japanese philosophical world views, ritual expressions and moral orientations. Theravada, Mahayana, Ch'an, Zen. Offered occasionally. Raj.

215 Jewish Life and Thought (1) Fall
The world of Jewish life and thought as reflected in both ancient and modern Jewish writings. An analysis of selected biblical, rabbinic and medieval classics, as well as modern Jewish literature. Staff.

221 The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of Christianity (1) Spring
An introduction to the Dead Sea Scrolls and their contribution to our understanding of the Bible and particularly of Jesus of Nazareth and the early Christian church. Provides a survey of the scrolls, a brief history of the period in which the scrolls were written, and a presentation of the various ways in which scholars have interpreted them. Includes in-depth study of selected texts and themes that shed light on the life and teachings of Jesus, the Gospels and the letters of Paul. Staff.

232 Faith and Reason (1) Spring
Explores epistemology, or the theory of knowledge, as it applies to religious belief. Focuses on the nature of faith and asks whether faith is irrational according to thinkers such as Blaise Pascal, John Locke, Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Mourad.

234 Philosophy of Religion (1) Spring
Philosophical examination of several classic religious problems, including the nature of God, the proofs of God's existence, the justification for evil and suffering, the rationality of belief in miracles and the nature of the afterlife. Offered occasionally. Same as Philosophy 234. Mourad.

242 Christian Ethics (1) Fall
An introduction to the foundations and applications of Christian theological ethics. Investigates Christian perspectives on moral issues such as sex and marriage, medical ethics and social justice. Mourad.

250 Mysticism and Ecstasy (1) Fall, Spring
A study of mystical and ecstatic experiences focused primarily on the Christian tradition. Includes discussion of the limits and puzzles of mystical language and the value of religious experiences as evidence. Are mystics reasonable if they base their beliefs on religious experiences? Do their experiences provide any support for other people's religious beliefs? Offered occasionally. Mourad.

270 Liberation Theology (1) Fall, Spring
Examines Christian theological responses to poverty and social injustice emphasizing the theme of liberation. Includes analysis of liberation theology in 1960s Latin America and its influence on African American and feminist theologies in the U.S. Offered occasionally. Mourad.

288, 289 Selected Topics (1)
An examination of important contemporary or perennial topics in religion. Offered occasionally. May be taken more than once for credit. Staff.

311 Religion and Ecology (1) Spring
Considers the relation between nature and the sacred in selected religious traditions such as Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism and "eco-religion." Raj.

312 Global Christianities (1) Spring
Investigates the ways Christianity was shaped by contact with different world cultures and the social processes and religious changes implicit in the acculturation of Christianity in diverse geographical regions and cultural contexts. Examines a select number of Christianities in Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America and North America, and the distinct forms these have assumed over the centuries. Raj.

313 Death and Dying in World Religions (1) Fall
A critical, comparative study of the beliefs and practices related to death and dying in a select number of religions and in American society. Same as Anthropology and Sociology 313. Raj.

320 Gender and Biblical Interpretation (1) Spring
Methods of biblical interpretation and their relation to gender construct in society and biblical authority. Offered in alternate years. Staff.

321, 322 Colloquium in Biblical Studies (1 each) Fall
Prerequisite: Religious Studies 121 or 122. Explorations of significant biblical themes. Topics to be announced. Past colloquia have included "Genesis and Job" and "Jesus at the Movies." Offered occasionally. Staff.

363 Myth, Symbol and Ritual (1) Spring
Explorations into the meaning and value of myth, symbol and ritual, drawing upon the insights of depth psychology and religion. Topics include the nature of myth, its relation to ritual, and the importance and interpretation of symbols in human life. Offered in alternate years. Raj.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Offered on demand. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Topics of special interest. Past seminars have included "C.G. Jung and Individuation," "Religion and Existentialism," "Theology of Sex and Marriage" and "Seminar on Ministry." Offered occasionally. Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1) Fall Spring
Prerequisite: Upperclass standing.
Recent directed study topics have included "The Image of Mary Magdalene in Tradition"; "Yoga and Integration"; "Religious Perspectives on Marriage"; C.S. Lewis; Niebuhr's Social Ethic; Philosophical Theology of Hans Kung; and "The Theology of Paul Tillich." Hebrew and Greek are also taught regularly as tutorials. Staff.

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