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Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major

  • A minimum of eight units in philosophy.
  • At least three of these eight units must be at the 300- or 400-level.
  • All courses for the major must be taken for a numerical grade and cannot be taken credit/no credit. Directed studies may be counted only by permission of the department.

Requirements for Minor

  • Five units in philosophy, at least two of which must be at the 300- or 400-level.

Requirements for Minor in History of Philosophy

  • Five units, including Philosophy 211 and 212, and three courses at the 289-level or higher selected from the following: Continental Philosophy (289), Sources of Evil (289), Nineteenth Century Philosophy (381), Kierkegaard and Nietzsche (401), History of Philosophy (402), directed study with departmental approval (411). History 102, English 261, Political Science 355 and Religious Studies 231 may be substituted for one of the above electives in consultation with the Philosophy Department.

Requirements for Minor in Philosophy of Mind

  • Five units, at least one of which must be at the 300-level or higher, including either Philosophy of Mind (381/401) or Sensation, Perception and Knowledge (382), and any four of the following: Knowledge, Truth and Reason (315), Modern Philosophy (212), Philosophy East and West (102), Neuroscience I (NEUR 241), Neuroscience and Ethics (306). Psychology 343, 345, 348 or 378 may be substituted for one of the above electives in consultation with the Philosophy Department.

Requirements for Minor in Value Theory

  • Five units, at least two of which must be at the 300-level or higher, selected from the following: Ethics (201), Social Philosophy (202), Contemporary Moral Problems (206), Philosophy of Art (215), Environmental Ethics (301), Business Ethics (303), Ethics and Public Policy (304), Biomedical Ethics (308), Philosophy of Law (335), Theory of Justice (381/401), Leadership Ethics (302), Morality, Truth and Relativism (381/401), Neuroscience and Ethics (306).

Preparation for Graduate Study

  • We recommend that students plan their schedules in consultation with a Philosophy Department faculty member.
  • We recommend that students take more than eight philosophy courses.
  • The following courses are strongly recommended for graduate study: 201, 207, 211, 212, 214, 310, 315.
  • We recommend that students submit a thesis for departmental honors.
  • We recommend that students discuss the graduate school application process with the department during the spring of their junior year.

Philosophy Courses

101 Introduction to Philosophy (1)
A study of the basic methods, controversial problems and philosophical systems, with special consideration given to the relation of philosophy to other disciplines. Because of the central role of argument and evidence in philosophical inquiry, this course is an introduction to conceptual clarification, logical analysis and general critical thinking. Examines topics such as knowledge and skepticism, the mind-body problem, personal identity, moral relativism, moral responsibility, free will and determinism, power, social justice, racism, sexism, violence, war, the existence of God, the existence of theoretical entities. Kirby, Mittag.

102 Philosophy East and West (1)
Compares different schools of eastern philosophy with those of western philosophy in their approaches to important epistemological, metaphysical and ethical issues. These issues include, for example, the nature of the self and its relation to the external world; personal identity; and determinism, free will and moral responsibility. Covers similarities and differences in the philosophical questions asked, arguments given and methodologies adopted by both eastern and western philosophers. Madhok.

107 Logic and Critical Reasoning (1)
A study of the basic conceptual tools used to recognize, evaluate and express arguments. Designed for the student who wishes to reason more effectively and critically. Topics: inductive and deductive standards, truth, validity, fallacies, paradoxes, regresses, counterexamples, analogies, reductios, definitions, sophistries. Mittag.

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

201 Ethics (1)
An examination and evaluation of the major ethical theories, both classical and contemporary, and the application of these theories to a current moral problem. Madhok.

202 Social Philosophy (1)
An issues and historically oriented introduction to a broad range of philosophical subject matter and methodologies through a clarification and analysis of argumentation used to justify selected social and political institutions and practices—e.g., individual liberties, properties of personhood, the nature of the state, obligations and rights, etc. Staff.

206 Contemporary Moral Problems (1)
An introduction to a broad range of philosophical subjects and methodologies through an examination and analysis of contemporary moral problems—e.g., abortion, euthanasia, genetic engineering, sexual morality, gender and racial discrimination, corporate crime, pornography and censorship, the death penalty, ecology, world hunger, etc. Madhok.

207 Symbolic Logic (1)
A study of the formal conceptual tools used by modern deductive logic to express and evaluate arguments. Emphasizes the use of propositional and quantifier logic to clarify and evaluate arguments. Mittag.

211 Ancient Philosophy (1)
A survey of the beginnings of western philosophical thought focusing on the writings of the Presocratics, Plato, Aristotle and others. Kirby.

212 Modern Philosophy (1)
Philosophical thought in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, focusing on the writings of such philosophers as Descartes, Leibnitz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Kirby.

214 Twentieth Century Philosophy (1)
Major movements in and methods of contemporary philosophical thinking with special attention to the analytic and existential thinkers. Offered in alternate years. Kirby.

220 Philosophy and History of Science (1)
Considers the following questions: What is science? What is scientific explanation? What are the ontological commitments of a scientist? To what extent does the culture of a scientific community affect results of that community? Kirby.

234 Philosophy of Religion (1)
Same as Religion 234. Staff.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

301 Environmental Ethics (1)
Examines theoretical and practical perspectives on ethical issues in relation to the environment. The theoretical issues range from whether we should assign moral value to species other than the human (and if so, on the basis of what criteria) to whether we have moral obligations to preserve the environment for future generations (and if so, what this would imply for the present generations). The practical issues range from creating incentives for restricting population growth without abdicating responsibilities toward the world's hungry, to the issue of what short-and long-term policies and practices need to be adopted to deal effectively with reducing pollution and hazardous waste while working toward a recycling, sustainable global society. Madhok.

302 Leadership Ethics (1)
Examines the ethical foundations of leadership. Involves an in-depth discussion of foremost leadership theories and their applications to different contexts; critically examines the morally distinct aspects of leadership by looking at the relationships among power, self-interest, and morality; and analyzes leadership from within the ethical frameworks of virtue, duty, and utility along with discussing the ethical challenges of diversity (culture relativism, race, and gender) to traditional leadership ethics. Madhok.

303 Business Ethics (1)
An examination of selected moral problems posed by corporate conduct—e.g., profit-maximization vs. social responsibility, corporate crime and the criminal justice system, business vs. environmental concerns, preferential hiring vs. reverse discrimination, employee autonomy vs. corporate loyalty, deception vs. honesty in advertising, corporate vs. government regulation. Clarification and critical examination of different ethical perspectives for resolving these moral dilemmas. Madhok.

304 Ethics and Public Policy (1)
Emphasizes the ethical foundations of public policy. Rights, obligations, justice, autonomy, the nature of the good life: should these play a role in determining public policy, and if so, how? Focuses on the interaction between ethical values and public policy in areas such as health care, law, government, foreign policy, citizenship, education and media. Madhok.

306 Neuroscience and Ethics (1)
An introduction to the dialogue that has developed between cognitive neuroscientists and moral philosophers. Cognitive neuroscience brings to the study of ethics an interest in the way the brain processes information and in the kinds of brain states that subserve thought and action—in short, it is answering the question of what kind of information-processing creatures we are. Madhok.

308 Biomedical Ethics (1)
The application of major ethical theories to some of the moral problems raised by recent developments in medical technology. Does increased medical knowledge (the end) justify experimentation with human subjects (the means)? How much should a patient be told and who decides? Do parents have the right to give birth to a defective infant and thereby apparently pollute the gene pool? To whom is the genetic counselor responsible—fetus, parent, future generations? Is there a right to die? Who should be the ultimate decision-maker—physician, patient, pastor? Is health care a right or a privilege? In answering these dilemmas, are there any moral rules to follow or does each person decide what is best in the situation? Madhok.

309 International Ethics and Global Development (1)
Explores the ethics of development in an international context. What should development be? Who should play a role in bringing about development? Examines multiple answers to these questions via an understanding of global development ethical theories and approaches such as the basic human needs approach, the human rights approach, the theory of development as freedom, the capabilities approach, theories of justice, as well as utilitarianism and deontological approaches. Applies these development ethics frameworks to important international issues such as poverty, gender inequality, violence and insecurity, over-consumption and globalization. Includes discussion of issues of ethical objectivism versus subjectivism, and ethical pluralism versus relativism. Madhok.

310 Metaphysics (1)
Explores what kinds of things exist. Do abstract entities exist? Is there such a thing as free agency in a world that is deterministic (or, for that matter, in a world that is not deterministic)? Is time something that is mind-dependent or mind-independent? Are we committed to the existence of electrons? Is causation anything above and beyond regularity? Kirby.

315 Knowledge, Truth and Reason (1)
Prerequisite: One prior course in philosophy.
A critical examination of recent work in the theory of knowledge, i.e., of classic contemporary papers on skepticism, knowledge and the justification of belief. Mittag.

318 Philosophy of Mind (1)
An introduction to the philosophy of mind. Explores the relation of the mind to the physical world and evaluates prominent competing theories about the nature of the mind, including the identity theory, dualism, behaviorism, functionalism and eliminative materialism. Also covers artificial intelligence, phenomenal consciousness, the adequacy of folk psychological explanation and theories of mental content. Mittag.

325 Philosophy of Language (1)
Words and sentences of a language have meanings, thereby allowing us to use sentences to communicate our thoughts, some of which are true. But how do words and sentences get their referents and meanings? What are meanings? This course focuses on central developments in the philosophy of language throughout the twentieth century. Topics include theories of meaning and reference, speech acts, pragmatics, and conversational implicature. Mittag.

335 Philosophical Issues in the Law (1)
Designed both for students interested in philosophy and for those interested in political science, history, economics, or sociology. Provides an explanation of legal concepts and institutions from the philosophical perspective. Develops in the student: (1) an understanding of some of the major philosophical issues in the law and (2) the ability to reflect critically upon them. Madhok.

380 Aristotle: A Western Foundation (1)
Considers how Aristotle's philosophy continues to exercise influence today, especially concerning controversies over the nature of existence, identity, the soul and the way one should live. Explores and evaluates the arguments of a philosopher who was the finest pupil in Plato's Academy, the personal instructor of Alexander the Great, and the founder of the Lyceum. Kirby.

381, 382 Readings in Philosophy (1 each)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Recommended for advanced students.
Careful and critical study of one or more of the outstanding works in philosophy. Staff.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Recommended for advanced students.
Topics of special interest including "Justice," "Metaphysics," "Moral Realism," "Russell." Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Staff.

Faculty

Kenneth J. Saville, chair and professor.
B.S., 1985, Western Michigan University; Ph.D., 1992, Syracuse University. Appointed 1995.

Roger J. Albertson, associate professor.
B.S., 1997, University of Colorado at Denver; Ph.D., 2003, University of Oregon. Appointed 2008.

E. Dale Kennedy, professor.
B.A., 1975, College of Wooster; M.A., 1979, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ph.D., 1989, Rutgers University. Appointed 1994.

Sheila Lyons-Sobaski, associate professor.
B.S., 1989, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; M.S., 1994, Kansas State University; Ph.D., 2003, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Appointed 2005.

Ola Olapade, associate professor.
B.Sc., 1990, M.Sc., 1995, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); M.S., 1998, Millersville University; Ph.D., 2004, Kent State University. Appointed 2006.

Bradley J. Rabquer, assistant professor.
B.S., 2001, Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., 2006, University of Toledo. Appointed 2011.

Ruth E. Schmitter, professor.
B.S., 1964, Michigan State University; M.Sc., 1966, University of Edinburgh; Ph.D., 1973, Harvard University. Appointed 1982.

J. Dan Skean, Jr., professor.
B.S., 1980, Western Kentucky University; M.S., 1982, North Carolina State University; Ph.D., 1989, University of Florida. Appointed 1988.

Douglas W. White, adjunct assistant professor.
B.S., 1976, Pennsylvania State University; M.S., 1978, University of Tennessee; Ph.D., 1989, Rutgers University. Appointed 1995.

Introduction

The Biology Department's mission is to provide students with an understanding of, and an appreciation for, the living world, including the fundamental mechanisms that underlie all life. Students should understand the ways in which they are affected by living organisms and how their lives in turn have an impact on other living organisms and the biosphere. They should become proficient in the methods of science and aware of the processes that lead to discoveries in science. In course work, they should develop observational, analytical and communication skills, regardless of their chosen career path. Ultimately, biology is best understood by active involvement with organisms and the systems of life in laboratory and field settings, and in collaborative student-faculty research.

Biology Department Website

Career Opportunities

Albion's biology program prepares students for employment or advanced studies in the health sciences (medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, physical therapy, etc.), environmental fields, biotechnology, teaching and many areas of research (academic, governmental, industrial, medical, etc.). Biology majors can also pursue an environmental sciences concentration or a neuroscience concentration.

Research Opportunities

Students have numerous opportunities for individual research projects. Many of these projects result in honors theses, publications in professional journals and in presentations at professional meetings. Some projects are in collaboration with faculty; others are more independent. Courses in the Biology Department equip students with scientific skills and materials they need to do research. Outstanding students participate in nationally competitive summer research programs at major universities and research institutes.

Special Features

The department also invites outstanding students to serve as laboratory teaching assistants. Advanced equipment in the biology facilities of Kresge Hall and in the Dow Analytical Laboratory in the Norris Science Center provides unique opportunities for undergraduate laboratory studies and research, just as the 144-acre Whitehouse Nature Center adjacent to the campus provides opportunity for fieldwork.

Departmental Policy on Advanced Placement Credit

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in biology will receive one unit of credit for Biology 190. This unit does not count toward the biology major but does count toward the graduation requirement of 32 units.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major

  • Eight units in biology, including at least six courses with laboratory.
    Biol 195: Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity
    Biol 210: Cell and Molecular Biology (requires Chemistry 121 as a prerequisite or corequisite).
    Biol 300: Genetics.

    At least one course from each of the following three lists:

List 1
Biol 206: Tropical Forest and Reef Biology
Biol 215: Aquatic Botany
Biol 216: Vascular Plants
Biol 225: Invertebrate Zoology
Biol 227: Vertebrate Zoology
Biol 237: Ecology
Biol 248: Ornithology

List 2
Biol 301: Cell Biology
Biol 310: Evolution
Biol 312: Advanced Genetics Laboratory (1/2 unit)
Biol 314: Comparative Anatomy
Biol 321: Medical Microanatomy
Biol 324: Developmental Biology
Biol 332: Microbiology
Biol 341: General Physiology

List 3
Biol 362: Molecular Biology
Biol 365: Environmental Microbiology
Biol 366: Medical Endocrinology
Biol 367: Virology
Biol 368: Behavioral Ecology
Biol 369: Population Genetics
Biol 371: Pathophysiology
Biol 401 or 402: Seminar
Biol 411 or 412: Directed Study
Note: Requirement is for one course.

  • Two units of chemistry unless a substitution is approved in advance by the staff. The biology faculty strongly recommends that Chemistry 121 and Chemistry 211 be taken to satisfy this requirement. Chemistry 101, 107 and 200 do not fulfill this requirement.
    Further study in chemistry, physics, geology and mathematics is recommended and encouraged.
  • All biology courses and cognate courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • No more than one unit of internship credit (391, 392) can count toward the major. No more than one unit of seminar (401, 402) and no more than one unit of directed study (411, 412) credit can count toward the major.
  • Neither Biology 111 nor Biology 190 (given only for AP credit) can count toward the major.
  • A senior examination must be taken for assessment purposes.
  • It is expected that six of the eight units in biology be taken at Albion College. Other arrangements will be made for bona fide transfer students and students in approved off-campus programs.

Information on Minors

  • The minor in cell and molecular biology and the minor in environmental biology are not open to biology majors.
  • Students may not choose more than one minor in the Biology Department.
  • All courses for a biology minor must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • Neither Biology 111 nor Biology 190 (given only for AP credit) can count toward any minor in biology.
  • A senior examination must be taken for assessment purposes.

Requirements for Minor in Cell and Molecular Biology

  • Five units in biology, including the following: Biology 195, 210 (requires Chemistry 121 as prerequisite or co-requisite), 300. Any two of the following, of which at least one must include a laboratory: 301, 321, 324, 332, 337 (may be taken as Chemistry 337), 341, 362, 365, 367

Requirements for Minor in Environmental Biology

  • Five units in biology, including the following:
    Biology 195
    Four of the following, including:
    At least two from 215, 216, 225, 227, 248
    At least one from 206, 210 (requires Chemistry 121 as prerequisite or co-
    requisite), 237, 365, 368 (365 and 368 require Biology 300 or permission of the instructor as prerequisite)

Requirements for Major with Secondary Education Certification

  • Eight units in biology, including the following: 195, 210, 300; one unit (200-level or higher) "animal" course; one unit (200-level or higher) "plant" course. Of the latter two courses, one must be from List I. In addition, one unit in the major must be from List II. At least six of these courses must include a laboratory.
  • Two units in chemistry unless a substitution is approved in advance by the staff. The biology faculty strongly recommends that Chemistry 121 and Chemistry 211 be taken to satisfy this requirement. Chemistry 101, 107, and 200 do not fulfill this requirement.
  • One unit chosen from the following laboratory cognates: Geology 101 (lab required), 103 (lab required), Physics 115 (lab required).
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification. Students will design their program of study in consultation with the biology faculty and must obtain written approval of the Biology Department chair, preferably no later than the beginning of the second semester of the junior year.

Requirements for Minor with Secondary Education Certification

  • Five units in biology, including the following:
    Biology 195, 210 (requires Chemistry 121 as prerequisite), 300
    One of the following: 215, 216
    One of the following: 225, 227, 248, 314
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Interdisciplinary Major in Integrated Science with Elementary Education Certification

Students interested in pursuing elementary education certification may wish to consider an interdisciplinary major in integrated science. The integrated science major is primarily intended for students seeking a broad, cross-disciplinary understanding of the natural sciences. Students completing a major in integrated science are required to take courses in all the natural sciences and also to choose a minor in biology, chemistry, geology or physics. The detailed requirements for the major are provided in this catalog or are available from the Education Department.

Biology Courses

The courses listed below count toward the biology major or minors unless otherwise noted. Some courses in the department are offered in alternate years and are so designated below. Please consult with the instructor or with the Class Schedule, available online or at the Registrar's Office, to determine when a course will next be offered.

111 First-Year Colloquium in Biology (1/4)
Prerequisites: First-year standing and invitation of instructor.
Seminar in which selected topics and research papers are reviewed and discussed. Offered on credit/no credit basis. Does not count toward the biology major or minors. Two-hour discussion. Staff.

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

195 Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity (1)
Focuses on whole organisms and their evolutionary and ecological relationships. Evolutionary processes, biological diversity, conservation biology and human impacts on ecology and biodiversity are major themes. Skills introduced are hypothesis testing, experimental design, use of primary literature in writing assignments and basic statistics. Lecture and laboratory. Staff.

206 Tropical Forest and Reef Biology (1)
Prerequisites: Biology 195 and permission of instructors.
An introduction to rain forests, mangrove islands and coral reefs of the neotropics. Students meet weekly throughout the semester and must spend spring break in Belize, Central America, where intensive field trips and individual projects are conducted. Counts as an elective toward the biology major, but does not satisfy the field work or seminar requirements. Lecture/discussion. Offered in alternate years. Team-taught.

207 Biology of Subtropical Florida (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195 and permission of instructors.
An introduction to the ecosystems of subtropical Florida. Students meet weekly throughout the semester and must spend spring break in Florida, where intensive field trips and individual projects are conducted. Counts as an elective toward the biology major, but does not satisfy the field work or seminar requirements. Lecture/discussion. Offered in alternate years. Team-taught.

210 Cell and Molecular Biology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195. Prerequisite or corequisite: Chemistry 121.
Focuses on organisms at the cellular and molecular levels, including biological chemistry, bioenergetics and metabolism, Mendelian and molecular genetics, cellular communication and the molecular control of the cell cycle. Builds upon skills from Biology 195 to expand abilities in hypothesis testing and experimental design to produce an individual research paper, and to carry out more advanced statistical analyses. Lecture and laboratory. Staff.

211 Sophomore Research (1/2)
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and invitation of instructor.
Independent research projects for invited sophomores. Staff.

215 Aquatic Botany (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
A study of representative algae, aquatic fungi and bryophytes, emphasizing the relationships of structure and function. Reproductive strategies and environmental physiology are discussed. Taxonomy is based upon current hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Schmitter.

216 Vascular Plants (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
Morphology, taxonomy and distribution of vascular plants. Representatives of local flora receive special attention in laboratory and field studies. Lecture and laboratory. Skean.

225 Invertebrate Zoology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
Field-oriented course emphasizing evolution, classification, ecology, behavior and natural history of invertebrate animals. Class involves field trips and use of the Whitehouse Nature Center. Lecture and laboratory. McCurdy.

227 Vertebrate Zoology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
Classification, behavior, ecology and evolution of the vertebrates. Mammals and birds are emphasized more than other groups. Lecture and laboratory. Kennedy.

236 Ecology for K-8 Pre-service Teachers (1)
Prerequisite: Admission to the elementary teacher certification program.
A field-based ecology course on topics including ecosystems, energy flow, evolution, population dynamics, community ecology and human impacts on the environment. Specific focus on the Michigan Science Curriculum Standards and Benchmarks. Taught at the Pierce Cedar Creek Institute near Hastings, Michigan. Lecture/discussion and laboratory. Skean.

237 Ecology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
A study of interactions between organisms and their environment including adaptation, competition, parasitism, population and community dynamics and the ecosystem concept. Class involves field trips and use of the Whitehouse Nature Center. Lecture and laboratory. Lyons-Sobaski.

240 Conservation Biology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
Presents concepts and issues concerning the causes and consequences of the loss of biodiversity. Emphasizes the science of conservation biology including the evolutionary potential of populations and species, as well as the history of the field, international efforts to conserve species, and the current status of policies such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Includes a conservation-related outreach project. Lyons-Sobaski.

248 Ornithology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
The biology of birds with emphasis on evolution, behavior, ecology and conservation. Field experience in identification, population studies, bird banding, song recording and analysis, and carrying out a research project. Students will learn to critically evaluate the ornithological literature. Lecture and laboratory. Kennedy.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Biology 195.
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

300 Genetics (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 210. Not open to students who have completed Biology 317.
Mechanisms of inheritance and of gene structure and function in living organisms. Both classical and molecular genetics are considered as they relate to function. Staff.

301 Cell Biology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
An in-depth investigation of biological systems at the cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Studies of a variety of cell types and energy relations within cells. Lecture emphasizes metabolism, metabolic regulation and cellular diversity. Laboratory emphasizes measurement and analysis of subcellular features. Offered in alternate years. Schmitter.

309 Vertebrate Paleontology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 103 or Biology 195.
Must be taken as Biology 309 for credit toward the major. Lecture and laboratory.
Same as Geology 309. Bartels.

310 Evolution (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
A study of the course and processes of organic evolution. Topics include the history of ideas of evolution, population genetics, population ecology, speciation, adaptation, coevolution, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergences, mass extinctions and biogeography. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. McCurdy.

312 Advanced Genetics Laboratory (1/2)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor; Chemistry 211 recommended. Not open to students who have completed Biology 317.
Project-based laboratory course that will introduce students to general techniques in genetics. Under faculty guidance, students will design and carry out their own experiments, read primary literature, and present results in written and oral format. Staff.

314 Comparative Anatomy (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
Comparative anatomical study of vertebrate organ systems, their development and evolution. Lecture and laboratory. Kennedy.

321 Medical Microanatomy (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
Microanatomy of primate cells and tissues as depicted by light and electron microscopy. Relationships of structure and function are stressed, as are medical conditions resulting from cell or tissue damage. Lecture and laboratory. Schmitter.

324 Developmental Biology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
The genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying early development of multicellular organisms. Potential topics include fertilization and early development, gene regulation during development, neural pathfinding, cell signaling, cell division and growth, organogenesis, limb development, metamorphosis, regeneration, sex determination, the evolution of development, genomics, and stem cell research. Lecture and laboratory. Albertson.

332 Microbiology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor; Chemistry 211 recommended.
Introduction to the microbial world. Explores the morphology, physiology, genetics and diversity of microorganisms. Stresses the relationships among microbes and other organisms, including humans. Lecture and laboratory. Olapade.

337 Biochemistry (1)
Prerequisites: Chemistry 211; and Biology 300 or Chemistry 212; or permission of instructor.
Same as Chemistry 337. Must be taken as Biology 337 for credit toward the major. Lecture. Rohlman.

341 Physiology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor; Chemistry 211 recommended.
A study of the function of living organisms. Each physiological system is examined at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level. Particular focus is given to how each system is regulated and the interplay between systems. Lecture and laboratory. Rabquer.

362 Molecular Biology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor; Chemistry 211 recommended.
The theory and practice of modern molecular genetics will be explored. Techniques potentially considered include: DNA cloning, DNA hybridization, the polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and the expression of cloned genes in bacteria. Lecture/discussion and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Saville.

365 Environmental Microbiology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
Microbes in action: bioremediation, biodegradation, cycling of nutrients and energy flow, biopesticides and phytopathogens, spread of antibiotic resistance, molecular ecology of infectious diseases, microbial symbionts and extremophiles. Explores these and other topics through discussions, field trips and experimental work. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Olapade.

366 Medical Endocrinology (1)
Prerequisites: Biology 300 or permission of instructor, Chemistry 211; Biology 341 or Chemistry 337 strongly recommended.
Examination of the evolution of endocrinological systems, and the modes of action, mechanisms of control, and interactions of selected human hormonal systems under normal and compromised (disease) states. Offered in alternate years. Staff.

367 Virology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
Are viruses living organisms or not? Addresses this and many more questions in molecular architecture, replication strategies, transmission modes, pathogenicity, carcinogenicity and usefulness of viruses. Lecture and discussion. lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Olapade.

368 Behavioral Ecology (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
Patterns and functions of behavior examined from an ecological-evolutionary perspective. Topics include history of animal behavior, behavioral genetics, habitat selection, foraging, antipredator behavior, cooperation and altruism, communication, sexual selection, mating systems, parental behavior and optimality models. Independent field studies of living animals. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. McCurdy.

369 Population Genetics (1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
An introduction to population genetics, the study of gene frequencies and selection pressures within natural or managed populations. Topics include understanding concepts of genetic variation, recombination, linkage disequilibrium, selection, gene flow, genetic drift and mutation, as well as quantitative genetics. Lyons-Sobaski.

371 Pathophysiology (1)
Prerequisites: Biology 210, Chemistry 121; Chemistry 211 recommended.
Develops an understanding of the physiological basis of disease. Relates changes in function that contribute to disease states in otherwise normally functioning physiological systems. Presents the functional anatomy and physiological basis of "healthy" human systems in a normal state, and then examines compromises that result from disease states. Intended for students planning to pursue post-graduate studies in programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy and medicine. Rabquer.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Biology 300 or permission of instructor.
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internships (1/2, 1)
Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and permission of department.
No more than one unit may be counted toward the major. Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Prerequisites: Biology 300 and junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.
Topics in diverse areas of biology. Recent topics have included genes and cancer, literature and medicine, conservation biology, and biology of sharks and their relatives. Discussion. Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and approval by both the faculty sponsor and department chair of a research proposal prior to registration.
Independent research by an individual student under the direction of a staff member. A detailed summary research paper or other appropriate evidence is required at the end of the work. Normally offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

Faculty

Anne Mills McCauley, chair and professor.
B.F.A., 1976, Eastern Michigan University; M.F.A., 1978, Michigan State University. Appointed 1994.

Lynne Chytilo, professor.
B.F.A., 1978, University of Massachusetts Amherst; M.A., 1980, Purdue University; M.F.A., 1984, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Appointed 1984.

Michael Dixon, associate professor.
B.F.A., 1999, Arizona State University; M.F.A., 2005, University of Colorado at Boulder. Appointed 2008.

Ashley Feagin, assistant professor.
B.A., 2009, McNeese State University; M.F.A., 2012, Louisiana Tech University. Appointed 2013.

Bille Wickre, professor.
B.S., 1977, Dakota State University; M.A., 1984, University of Iowa; Ph.D., 1993, University of Michigan. Appointed 1992.

Introduction

The visual arts have always been an important part of human culture. Individual expression, the shaping of cultural values, and the creation of beauty have been among the traditional functions of art. Artists invest objects with meaning through processes that are themselves significant. When objects become part of the larger culture, artists and audiences interact with each other and with the world around them in ways that are aesthetically and intellectually enhanced. The arts ask us to see more clearly, think more deeply and respond with greater passion to the realities of human existence.

Integral to a liberal arts education, study of the arts encourages critical thinking, self-reflection, personal growth, and the mastery of a variety of creative, intellectual and technical skills. In both art and art history courses, students gain abilities and confidence to conceive, analyze and understand works of art in a variety of forms and to pursue lifelong learning in the arts. Art courses encourage individual creativity, provide a foundation of skills to enable artists to create objects or performances of lasting significance, and challenge students to new critical awareness. Skills of analysis, critical thinking and writing, and a grounding in historical and cultural contexts form the basis of the study of art history. Drawing upon archaeology, religious studies, social history, contemporary critical theory and other fields of knowledge, art history helps students realize relationships between art and life.

Majors choose either a bachelor of arts degree (B.A.) in art or art history or a bachelor of fine arts degree (B.F.A.) in art. The B.A. in art provides a broad grounding in major studio areas including drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, computer art, book art, video and photography. Students who wish to do more intense and focused work in art may apply for the B.F.A. program. The B.F.A. is recommended for students who will pursue graduate work in art and/or a career in the arts. Students who pursue a B.A. in art history develop research, writing, verbal and critical skills preparatory for graduate studies or careers in a variety of arenas. Art and art history majors regularly add a second major preparatory to a wide array of careers. For example, students may combine majors in art and psychology as part of their preparation for careers in art therapy. Students may choose a minor in either art or art history.

Art and Art History Department Website

Career Opportunities

Albion graduates in both art and art history bring to professional careers or graduate studies outstanding abilities in critical and creative thought, technical knowledge and skills, and a broad-based approach to problem-solving fostered by the liberal arts tradition. Recent graduates have pursued advanced studies in many specific studio areas, art history, arts management, animation, graphic art and architecture. Many enjoy careers in design, communications, World Wide Web design, advertising, museum and gallery positions, art therapy and education.

Special Features

Bobbitt Visual Arts Center houses the Department of Art and Art History, a public auditorium and two galleries for exhibiting the College art collection, professional artists' and student work. Its spacious and well-equipped facilities include painting and drawing studios; a complete photography lab with a lighting studio and darkrooms that support black and white, color, and digital photography; and a printmaking studio where students explore relief, lithographic, intaglio, and letterpress printing. The sculpture studios comprise a complete woodshop, a welding lab, areas for stone carving and other types of three dimensional production. Students studying ceramics work in spacious studios for throwing, handbuilding and slip casting, and fire their work in electric, raku and gas reduction-fired or wood kilns. Art students have 24-hour access to the general studios. The department houses a computer arts lab, dedicated to the visual arts. The lab is equipped with computers, scanners, color printers and a digital video editing suite. Computer technology is integrated into studio courses as an art-making tool, and into art history courses as a way to access distant museums and sites, and as a tool of analysis.

The Bobbitt Visual Arts Center galleries are home to 10 exhibitions each year, offering students a chance to view artwork by contemporary artists and to exhibit their own work. The Martha Dickinson Print Gallery highlights selections from the College's permanent collection of nearly 2,500 prints dating from the fifteenth century through the twenty-first century. The Elsie Munro Gallery hosts changing contemporary art exhibitions.

The Philip C. Curtis Artist-in-Residence program enables the department to bring emerging artists to campus every year. Students are encouraged to interact informally and to occasionally collaborate with these talented artists as they produce their work in Bobbitt.

Art and art history students often participate in off-campus programs such as the New York Arts Program, in which they work as interns with art professionals, including architects, interior designers, graphic designers, painters, gallery owners, curators, sculptors, photographers, medical illustrators, video and performance artists, and art therapists. Numerous other internships, off-campus experiences and international study programs offer excellent opportunities for art and art history students.

A number of scholarships are awarded to prospective students who have demonstrated achievement in art or art history. These can be renewed each year and are not limited to art or art history majors. Additional scholarships are available to upper-level art and art history majors who have demonstrated outstanding accomplishments in their specialty.

Departmental Diversity Statement

The Department of Art and Art History is committed to providing an open and welcoming environment to individuals of diverse ethnic, religious or racial backgrounds, geographic and cultural origins, class status, sexual orientation and to those of all physical abilities. We believe that individual expression in the form of artistic creation, analysis and dialogue is essential to the maintenance of human life and the creation of a humane and just society. To this end we will:

  • Maintain facilities that are accessible to all;
  • Attempt to include within our curriculum broad perspectives;
  • Encourage artistic creation and analysis that reflects a diversity of viewpoints and individual experiences;
  • Provide in our galleries and collections of prints, objects and other visual materials, art work that reflects the broadest spectrum of the human experience;
  • Provide opportunities for advanced study that explore issues of diversity;
  • Cooperate with other areas of the College to further the diversity efforts of the institution.

Departmental Policy on Advanced Placement Credit

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in art will receive credit for one art elective.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major toward B.A. in Art

  • Ten units in studio art, including: 102, 103, 121; a minimum of three units from 201, 222, 223, 231, 241, 251, 261/262, 271; a minimum of three units at the 300-level or higher. One additional studio art elective from any of the 200- and 300-level studio course offerings (1/2 or 1 unit). One half-unit course, 296/396.
  • All majors must take a three-course sequence in one medium or must propose a three-course related sequence.
  • Three units of cognate art history courses, including 115 or 116, 326, and one other unit of art history at the 200-level or higher.
  • Art majors are required to participate in a junior review by department faculty and the senior art majors exhibition.
  • All courses counted toward the major must be taken for a numerical grade.

Requirements for Major toward B.F.A. in Art

  • Students may be admitted into the B.F.A. program by presenting a portfolio of their work to the art faculty preferably in their sophomore or junior year. Acceptance into the B.F.A. program is based on an evaluation of the portfolio and the student's previous performance in art and art history classes.
  • Once accepted in the B.F.A. program, students are expected to maintain the high quality of their work. They must acquire a minimum of a 3.25 grade average in their art courses in order to graduate with a B.F.A degree. The B.F.A. degree requires a minimum of 34 units for graduation.
  • No fewer than 14 and no more than 21 units in studio art, including: 102, 103, 121; a minimum of four units from 201, 222, 223, 231, 241, 251, 261/262, 271; a minimum of six units at the 300- level or higher. One half-unit course, 296/396.
  • All majors must take a three-course sequence in one medium or must propose a three-course related sequence.
  • Four units of cognate art history courses, including: 115 or 116; 326; one other unit of art history at the 200-level or higher; one other unit of art history at the 300-level or higher.
  • B.F.A. candidates are required to participate in a junior review by department faculty and the senior art majors exhibition.

Requirements for Major toward B.A. in Art History

  • A minimum of eight units in art history, including: one unit from 115 or 116, 326; a minimum of four units from courses at the 200-level or Art 262; a minimum of two units at the 300-level or higher; a minimum of one non-Western course must be included in your selections. Non-Western courses include: 206, 220, 328, 329, and/or Art 262.
  • Art history majors are required to participate in a junior review by department faculty and participate in the Senior Art History Majors Symposium.
  • It is recommended that students select at least one unit at the 200- or 300-level from four of the following areas: ancient/classical, medieval, Renaissance, baroque, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, modern and contemporary, American or non-western.
  • Art history majors are required to participate in the senior art history majors symposium.
  • One unit of a cognate studio art course.
  • All courses counted toward the art history major must be taken for a numerical grade.
  • Courses taken at an approved off-campus program may be substituted for Albion College courses with the permission of the department.
  • Art history students who are considering graduate study are strongly urged to complete at least two semesters of a foreign language. Graduate programs often require French and German.

Requirements for Minor in Art

  • Six units in art, including: 102, 103, 121; a minimum of one unit from 201, 222, 223, 231, 241, 251, 261/262, 271; one unit from any studio art course at the 200-level or higher.
  • One unit of a cognate art history course, either 115 or 116.

Requirements for Minor in Art History

  • Five units in art history, including: 115 or 116, a minimum of two units from any art history course at the 200-level, and a minimum of one unit of art history at the 300-level or higher. One additional unit in art history.

Art and Art History Courses

Art

102 Creative Process 2-D (1)
Designed to provide the student with the ability to work with and appreciate basic forms and concepts of art in both traditional and contemporary modes. Lecture and studio. Dixon, Feagin, McCauley.

103 Creative Process 3-D (1)
Designed to introduce the student to fundamental concepts in creating and viewing three-dimensional art. Lecture and studio. Chytilo.

121 Drawing (1)
Designed to introduce the beginning student to a variety of drawing media, subject matter and drawing concepts. May be taken concurrently with Art 102. Dixon.

201 Computer Art (1)
Prerequisite: Art 121 or permission of instructor.
Designed to familiarize students with basic skills and techniques in creating digitally assisted visual art. Initial projects serve to introduce software tools; later projects increasingly reinforce skill development while concentrating on idea generation and individual approaches to image making. Peripheral hardware, including scanners, digital cameras, and inkjet and laser printers, are utilized in generating imagery. Feagin.

222, 223 Advanced Drawing: Figure (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Art 121.
The human form is represented in a variety of media. May be repeated for credit. Dixon.

231 Painting I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 121.
An introduction to the vocabulary, materials and methods of oil painting. A range of technical and aesthetic considerations will be addressed. Dixon.

241 Photography I (1)
An introduction to the technical and aesthetic aspects of photography: basic functions of the camera, basic darkroom techniques, critique of work. Feagin.

251 Printmaking I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 121.
An introduction to relief and intaglio print processes including woodcut, linocut, metal plate etching, drypoint and aquatint. Idea generation emphasized. McCauley.

261 Ceramics I (1)
An introduction to ceramics as an art form. Begins with basic hand-forming and conceptual problem-solving in clay and then covers throwing, glazing and various firing methods. Chytilo.

262 Pottery and Politics: Examining the Art and Politics of Tea Culture in Japan (1)
Explores the aesthetic traditions and political history of the Japanese tea ceremony and pottery-making. Emphasizes the artistic and meditative execution of tea making with wares of art for tea making and tea consumption, in addition to the study of the practicality of tea as a vehicle for political negotiation, deliberation and social interaction in Japan. Same as Political Science 262. Chytilo/Dabney.

263 Intermediate Ceramics (1/2)
Prerequisite: Art 261 or 262.
A continuation of the processes and techniques learned in Art 261 or 262. Emphasis is placed on creating innovative work with greater skill than acquired in previous classes. Chytilo.

264 Advanced Intermediate Ceramics (1/2)
Prerequisite: Art 263.
A continuation of the processes and techniques learned in Art 263. Emphasis is placed on creating innovative work with greater skill than acquired in previous classes. Chytilo.

271 Sculpture I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 103 or permission of instructor.
Problems dealing with concepts in three-dimensional space and form, and the introduction to the use of basic tools and techniques with wood, stone, metal and mixed media. Chytilo.

301 Video Art (1)
An introduction to the use of video as a medium for individual expression and creativity. Basic video skills and procedures in planning and producing a video are presented through demonstrations, lectures and practice sessions. Working with digital cameras and Premiere editing software, participants become familiar with the operation of the video cameras and editing deck, sound recording, storyboarding, and lighting techniques. Feagin.

303 Advanced Digital Imaging (1)
Prerequisite: Art 201 or 241.
An advanced computer art studio course addressing the special visual and philosophical concerns around digital art making. Development of greater control of the input of imagery using devices such as stylus pads, scanners and digital cameras. Assignments address both paper and pixel output as well as the introduction of interactivity and time-based elements. Feagin.

324, 325 Advanced Drawing: Workshop (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Art 121.
Contemporary concepts and techniques related to drawing are explored through studio practice. May be repeated for credit. Dixon, McCauley.

331 Painting II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 231.
Assigned problems for individual solutions. Medium: oil. Dixon.

332 Painting III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 331.
Individually assigned problems in advanced painting concepts and techniques. Dixon.

333 Painting Workshop I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 332.
Individual problems in the philosophical and technical aspects of painting. Self-reliance and individuality of concept stressed. Dixon.

334 Painting Workshop II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 333.
Continuation of Art 333. Dixon.

335 Painting Workshop III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 334.
Continuation of 334. A written statement discussing visual and philosophical aspects of a body of work will be presented to the art faculty for review. Dixon.

341 Photography II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 241 or permission of instructor.
Advanced assignments in photography with emphasis on imaginative approach and individual work. Lecture and lab. Critique of work. Feagin.

342 Photography III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 241.
Advanced investigation into photographic materials including medium- and large-format negatives, advanced darkroom techniques and alternative processes with an emphasis on integrating process, materials and concept in an individualized body of work. Feagin.

343 Photography Workshop (1)
Prerequisite: Art 342.
Individual exploration of technical and/or aesthetic issues in photographic media. Emphasizes the development of personal creative expression. Feagin.

344 Photography Workshop II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 343.
A continuation of Art 343. Feagin.

345 Photography Workshop III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 344.
A continuation of Art 344. Focuses on creation of a strong body of work in an area of personal interest, along with compilation into a matted portfolio with images and a well-developed artistic statement discussing the material and conceptual aspects of the work. Feagin.

346 Color Photography (1)
Prerequisite: Art 241.
An advanced photography course introducing the basics of color photography. Covers color theory as applicable to photography, color exposure, color printing process and studio lighting. Emphasizes integrating process, materials and concept in an individualized body of work. Feagin.

351 Printmaking II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 251.
Continuing study of relief and intaglio print processes with advanced applications. Development of personalized imagery emphasized. McCauley.

352 Printmaking III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 351.
Advanced problems in relief and intaglio with emphasis on integration of print processes and development of personalized imagery. McCauley.

353 Printmaking Workshop I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 352.
Workshops provided for concentrated development in all phases of printmaking. Discussion of traditional and contemporary printmaking in relation to individual problems. Concept development is strongly emphasized. McCauley.

354 Printmaking Workshop II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 353.
Continuation of Art 353. McCauley.

355 Printmaking Workshop III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 354.
Continuation of 354. McCauley.

356 Visual Poetry (1)
A study of writing poetry and its presentation in printed form. Intended for writers and visual artists alike, this course teaches the fundamentals of writing poetry and letterpress printing. Participants both write their own poems and, using movable type and hand-operated printing presses, set and print their own poems as broadsides and artists’ books. Same as English 356. McCauley, Mesa.

357 Book Arts (1)
Prerequisite: Art 121 and one other studio art course.
Designed to teach students the traditional and contemporary craft of handmade visual books. Students investigate book forms through hands-on demonstrations to gain experience in a wide range of book structures as preparation for individual creations. Exploration of a diverse range of media in the construction of individual books is encouraged and supported. McCauley.

361 Ceramics II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 261.
A continuation of Ceramics I with more advanced work in ceramic processes and theories including clay and glaze formulation. Emphasis also is placed on development of personal expression and direction with the medium. Laboratory and lecture. Chytilo.

362 Ceramics III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 361.
Advanced problems in ceramic design. Chytilo.

363 Ceramics Workshop I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 362.
Each semester students will explore a different technical and/or aesthetic subject of the ceramic processes on an individualized basis. Chytilo.

364 Ceramics Workshop II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 363.
An emphasis is placed on the student's development in an area of personal interest. Chytilo.

365 Ceramics Workshop III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 364.
Continuation of Ceramics Workshop II. A strong body of work accompanied by a group of images and a written thesis will be presented to the art faculty for review. Chytilo.

371 Sculpture II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 271.
Individually arranged problems in advanced sculptural concepts and techniques. Chytilo.

372 Sculpture III (1)
Continuation of Art 371. Chytilo.

373 Sculpture Workshop I (1)
Prerequisite: Art 372.
Individually arranged exploration and development of specific sculptural directions. A more intense involvement in the visual and philosophical implications of a body of work is emphasized. Chytilo.

374 Sculpture Workshop II (1)
Prerequisite: Art 373.
Continuation of Sculpture Workshop I. Chytilo.

375 Sculpture Workshop III (1)
Prerequisite: Art 374.
Continuation of Sculpture Workshop II. A written statement discussing visual and philosophical aspects of a body of work with accompanying images will be presented to the art faculty for review. Chytilo.

381, 382 Process (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
The process of making and conceiving art, often from a multi-media, interdisciplinary point of view. Examples: The concept of assemblage, photo-sensitive media, readings for current art, structural systems, critical studies of the college collections, color perception and performance, current drawing concepts. Staff.

296/396 Professional Practices in Art (1/2)
Designed to provide the emerging artist with multiple experiences in preparation for professional opportunities in the fine arts. Must be taken spring semester of the senior year. (It is strongly recommended that students interested in graduate school take this class in the junior and senior year.) Chytilo, Dixon, Feagin, McCauley.

Art History

115 Art of the Western World (1)
An introduction to art of the Western world in its historical context. Offers an overview of the arts of Western culture framed within historical, religious, political, economic and social events. Incorporates basic tools of art historical analysis and criticism. Wickre.

116 World Art (1)
An introduction to world art in its historical context, considering the dominant arts of each continent framed within historical, religious, political, economic and social events. Incorporates basic tools of art historical analysis and criticism. Wickre, Staff.

206 Art of Egypt and North Africa (1)
Explores how works of art and architecture contributed to these important cultures. Looks closely at art in its religious and socio-political contexts, including especially the contents and decorations of tombs and temples in the Nile river valley. Also examines architecture and art objects from Mesopotamia as reflections of early ideas of personal religion and the city-state. Staff.

208 Early Christian and Byzantine Art (1)
Provides a foundation of knowledge in Early Christian and Byzantine art, including painting, sculpture, textile, metalwork, glasswork, architecture and illumination created from the period of the late Roman Empire and early Middle Ages to the fifteenth century in the Eastern Empire, or Byzantium. Emphasizes the identification of works, styles, artists and the broad political/religious contexts in which pieces of art were conceived and executed. Staff.

209 Art of Greece and Rome (1)
Explores visual art and architecture as integral to the construction of knowledge and value in these ancient cultures. Focuses on Greek and Roman art in its original stylistic, iconographic, religious and socio-political contexts from the Stone and Bronze Ages through Classical Greece and Imperial Rome. Wickre.

212 Art and Religion of the Medieval World (1)
Studies art and Christianity in Western Europe from the late Roman Empire to the fifteenth century, including consideration of style and iconography, through art forms ranging from catacomb paintings to manuscripts for private devotion to Gothic cathedrals. Considers interpretations of the Middle Ages from the ninth century to the present, emphasizing how these interpretations reflect and construct the intellectual traditions of their authors. Staff.

213 Art and Science of Leonardo's Day (1)
Investigates Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture from 1400 to 1550, including works by Giotto, Piero, Leonardo, Michelangelo and others. Considers interpretations of Renaissance art, architecture and science, and the concepts of Humanism and Renaissance from the time of Petrarch to the present. Wickre.

214 Baroque Art (1)
Explores the diversity of artistic styles in Europe between 1600 and 1750. Considers the expanding concepts of world geography, trade and colonization and its impact on art, an awakening sense of self for both artists and patrons, systems of training, theories of gender in the production and consumption of art works, and ways of describing and inscribing gender, race, class and sexual orientation in baroque art. Wickre.

216 Modern and Contemporary Art (1)
Survey of twentieth and twenty-first century European and American painting, sculpture, photography, and time arts. Examines stylistic trends, changes in ideas about the nature and purposes of art and the relationships between art and society. Discussion of the impact of contemporary critical theory on the evolution of the art of the twentieth century. Wickre.

217 American Art, 1600-1913 (1)
Examines the major cultural movements, artists and art works in what would become the United States from the colonial period to the advent of modernism with the Armory Show in New York in 1913. Wickre.

219 Impressionism: Précis to Prologue (1)
Critically examines paintings of the Impressionists in France in the context of historical documents from the period, contemporary critical writings about the artists and paintings, and the art historical texts generated about the art. A study of Impressionism's roots in French romanticism and realism introduces the course. Special attention is paid to the particular historical circumstances that gave rise to Impressionism as a movement, and to the gendered nature of both the production and reception of Impressionist paintings. Wickre.

220 American Indian Art (1)
Examines the art history of American Indian cultures in the United States, with a focus on traditional arts at the time of European contact, in the immediate aftermath of that contact, and on the emergence of a contemporary arts culture within American Indian contexts. Also considers how mythology and stereotyping have created an image of "the Indian" and how that image was and is used in majority culture. Presents a broad array of resources, including Albion College's collection of American Indian objects and prints, and public and private art collections. Wickre.

310 Women and Art (1)
Examines the roles women have played as creators, subjects, patrons and critics of art through history. Special emphasis will be placed on theories of the social construction of gender through art in all periods and on responses of contemporary women artists to such constructions. Wickre.

311 Art as Political Action (1)
Examines art that invites or encourages social awareness and/or action. Includes studies of "high art'' media, such as photography, painting and sculpture, and non-traditional art forms including performance art, public murals, crafts, environmental art and others. Thematically arranged around politicized issues such as race, rape and domestic violence, concepts of the body, pacifism and war, poverty, illness and AIDS. The course begins with political movements that relied heavily on visual images to achieve their purposes. Wickre.

312 Race and Its Representation in American Art (1)
Examines representations of individuals and groups who traditionally have been viewed as "others'': African Americans, Native Americans, Asians and Chicanos/Chicanas as contrasted with images of members of the dominant culture. Considers how visual art has served to reflect social conditions and situations and to construct identities for all ethnic groups in the American psyche. Wickre.

313 History of Prints (1)
Focuses on how artists have used the forms and techniques of printmaking to express themselves visually from the fifteenth century to the present. The course uses three approaches: (1) art history lectures and discussions based on readings; (2) connoisseurship in studying prints from the College's permanent collection; and (3) practical application in producing prints in some of the major printmaking techniques. Students will begin to understand how the potential and limitations of various traditional techniques enable particular types of visual communication. Emphasis is placed on student-facilitated learning, exploration, discovery and collaborative processes. Wickre, McCauley.

314 Art of Rome (1)
A survey of the history of Roman art and architecture with a specific focus on Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire, from the sixth century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. Subjects include the major buildings and monuments of Rome, monumental relief sculpture, portrait sculpture, and paintings in the private homes of wealthy aristocrats. Principal themes cover the form and function of buildings, the role of narrative in relief sculpture, image-making in portraits, and the problems of defining style in house painting. Staff.

315 Earth, Art, and the Environment (1)
Examines American (U.S.) and European art and architecture that interacts with the environment and calls attention to the benefits and consequences of human interaction with the environment in a national and global context. Focuses on art, architecture and design projects produced from 1960 to the present and materials that set the context for artistic concerns about the environment beginning in the nineteenth century. Wickre.

317 Theory and Method in Art History (1)
Introduces students to a variety of methods used to interpret works of art. Examines the specialized literature of art history from the sixteenth century to the present. Theories and methods will be applied to art from all periods. Wickre.

320 Feminist Art (1)
The 1970s Feminist Art Movement introduced to the art world a revolution in attitudes and practices. The significant reverberations of that movement are felt to the present. Covers the social context, causes and effects, and major players in the Feminist Art Movement as well as its continuing impact. Wickre.

326 Issues in Contemporary Art (1)
Examines issues, theory and art from the 1960s to the present, from the standpoint of theory, practice and the objects produced. Focuses on painting, sculpture, and new media from around the world and emphasizes critical reading, writing, and discussion. Wickre.

328 Encounters: Indian Art (1)
Examines the encounters between Europeans who came to North America in the fifteenth century and the indigenous people they met when they arrived. Begins with an exploration of North American populations before contact and traces the intersections of peoples through the nineteenth century. Wickre.

329 Art of Constantinople (1)
A survey of the art and architecture of late antiquity and Byzantium with a special focus on Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire from 330 A.D. to 1453. Covers themes including the inheritance and transformation of the classical tradition; empire-building and the urban development of Constantinople; the arts of the capital as they relate to the empire's provinces; developments in Byzantine church architecture; and the form and function of portable religious and luxury arts. Considers the design, technique, patronage and reception of Byzantine works of both monumental and portable arts, including the meaning and significance of sacred and secular spaces in urban civic and religious ceremonials. Staff.

Special Studies

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Staff.

Faculty

Scott A. Melzer, chair and associate professor.
B.A., 1997, University of Florida; M.A., 2000, Ph.D., 2004, University of California, Riverside. Appointed 2004.

Bradley A. Chase, associate professor.
B.A., 1997, Northwestern University; M.S., 2000, Ph.D., 2007, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Appointed 2008.

Bethany M. Coston, visiting assistant professor.
B.A., 2008, Albion College; M.A., 2010, Ph.D. candidate, Stony Brook University. Appointed 2014.

Allison D. Harnish, assistant professor.
B.A., 2006, Western Kentucky University; Ph.D., 2013, University of Kentucky. Appointed 2013.

Lynn M. Verduzco-Baker, assistant professor.
B.A., 1991, California State University, Fresno; M.A., 2009, Ph.D., 2011, University of Michigan. Appointed 2011.

Introduction

Anthropologists study humankind and its diversity from beginnings to the present day. They focus upon humans' many answers to the common problems of existence and their differing understandings of reality. Sociologists study the impact of social institutions upon individual lives, how individuals are affected by family structure; government, economic and religious institutions; schools; hospitals; courts; and other organizations. Anthropology and sociology attract students who are interested in social problems and social services, management, administration and policy development, the development of Third World nations, diversity in lifestyles, world views and value systems, and ancient civilizations.

The Anthropology and Sociology Department emphasizes the mastery of research skills. This is done for two reasons. First, students develop a better grasp of abstract concepts and theories when they can apply them to real life situations. Second, research skills such as problem definition, test design and evaluation of data sets prepare students for employment and for graduate study in a wide range of fields. The department tries to incorporate student research projects into all classes and encourage students to pursue independent research under faculty guidance. Students are also assisted in finding internship placements where their skills can be applied, and those who wish to do so may obtain fieldwork experience in ethnography and archaeology during the summer.

Anthropology and Sociology Department Website

Career Opportunities

Knowledge and skills gained through the study of anthropology and sociology are valuable in everyday life and in a wide variety of careers. Training in anthropology and sociology may be especially valuable for students interested in pursuing careers in international business, public administration, market research, law enforcement, job counseling, human services, public health, international diplomacy, medical social work, foreign assistance, hospital administration, service agency planning, journalism and management.

A bachelor's degree in anthropology/sociology prepares students for graduate study and employment in fields such as law, urban planning, labor relations, personnel management, hospital administration, corrections, school administration, public health and museum management, as well as research and teaching in the fields of anthropology and sociology. Recent graduates from the department have become biostatisticians, urban planners, lawyers, biological anthropologists, congressional staff workers, physicians, nurses, news reporters and church field staff workers.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major

  • A minimum of eight units in anthropology and sociology, following the programs of study outlined below:

    Anthropology--Eight units including 105 and 343. All anthropology majors are strongly encouraged to study a foreign language and/or study abroad for a semester. Students anticipating graduate work are advised to take 324.

    Sociology--A minimum of eight units, including 101, 312, 323 and 324. Students must complete at least two elective courses at the 300- or 400-level, not including internships.

    Combined Major in Anthropology and Sociology--Although anthropology and sociology are separate and distinct disciplines, they also have many things in common: theories and methodologies, a focus on cultural similarities and differences and a commitment to international and/or global studies. Nearly all students choosing one of the two tracks outlined above will take courses in both anthropology and sociology, but some students may find that their academic needs are best met by a major that explicitly combines both fields of study.

    Eight units including 101, 105, 324, 343 and two upper division courses in anthropology and two in sociology. At least two of these upper division courses must be at the 300-level or higher where the course requirements should include research-based assignments.

  • All department majors will be required to take a senior exit exam during the spring semester as part of the department's assessment program. Participation in additional assessment activities may be required.
  • No more than one unit of internship credit may be counted toward the major.
  • All anthropology and sociology courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • No more than two units from an off-campus study program may be counted toward the major.

Requirements for Minor in Anthropology

  • Five units in anthropology, including 343.
  • Students majoring in anthropology or sociology may not complete a minor in the department.
  • All anthropology courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Requirements for Minor in Sociology

  • Five units in sociology, including 312 and either 323 or 324.
  • Students majoring in anthropology or sociology may not complete a minor in the department.
  • All sociology courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Requirements for Minor in Anthropology/Sociology

  • Five units in anthropology and sociology, including 101, 105, and either 312 or 343.
  • Students majoring in anthropology or sociology may not complete a minor in the department.
  • All anthropology and sociology courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Requirements for Social Studies Major with Elementary or Secondary Education Certification

Students interested in pursuing elementary or secondary education certification in social studies may choose to major in social studies. The detailed requirements for the major with elementary certification and secondary certification are provided in this catalog or are available from the Education Department.

Anthropology and Sociology Courses

Introductory Courses

101 An Introduction to Sociology (1)
(Sociology) Provides students with the analytic tools for adopting a sociological perspective in order to better understand their own lives and the lives of others. Emphasis on how sociologists think about the social world, how they research that world, and what we know about the social world based on sociological research. From our most personal experiences such as our identities and our interactions with others to the broader organization of institutions such as family, government, media, religion, economy and education, students will be encouraged to explore how social forces shape their own experiences and life chances and the experiences and life chances of others. Melzer, Verduzco-Baker, Staff.

105 An Introduction to Anthropology (1)
(Anthropology) What does it mean to be “human”? How can we understand human variation and change? This course provides a basic introduction to anthropology, with an emphasis on cultural anthropology. It also explores archaeology, biological anthropology, and linguistics. Chase, Staff.

Biological and Ecological Foundations

242 Biological Anthropology (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) Biological anthropology is the holistic study of the origins and bio-cultural nature of the human species. This course addresses several of the most important areas of biological anthropology such as human evolution; patterns of human physical diversity; human health and nutrition; gender and sexuality; bioarchaeology; primatology; dynamics of genetic ancestry, race, and ethnic identity; and forensic anthropology. Chase, Harnish.

271 Nature and Society: An Introduction to Ecological Anthropology (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) Provides an understanding of the diverse and ever-changing relationships between people and their natural environments. Considers the historical foundations of ecological anthropology and the human dimensions of contemporary environmental issues ranging from deforestation and desertification to ecotourism and environmental justice. Through cross-cultural case studies, students learn how human perceptions of and interactions with the environment are conditioned by social variables like gender, race, politics, economics and religion/worldview. Harnish.

357 Violent Environments (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) Does environmental degradation produce violence? What is the relationship between population growth, resource scarcity and violent conflict? In what ways do different environments (e.g., African national parks, Appalachian coal mines, hurricane-ravaged coastal cities) feature differential access to and control over natural and economic resources? This course first explores anthropological perspectives on violence, including biological, archaeological and cultural approaches to understanding war. Then, it investigates the multifaceted linkages between environments and conflict—the articulations among resource extraction, urbanization, economic development, population growth, biotechnology, biodiversity, natural disasters, human health, structural violence and social inequality. Harnish.

Archaeology

240 Ancient Civilizations (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) Although the human species has been on the planet in its present form for at least 100,000 years, complexly organized societies with cities, governments and organized religions did not emerge until the last 5,000. This phenomenon took place independently throughout the globe, and while some ancient civilizations collapsed, others became the foundations upon which the modern world was constructed. Why is this so? Through a comparative analysis of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Indus, Maya, Aztec and Incan societies, among others, students will learn to analyze the factors that have led to the emergence and transformation of civilizations. Chase.

241 Principles of Archaeology (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) Archaeology is the investigation of human societies through the study of their material remains. It provides the only source of information regarding the period from the evolution of humans over the last two million years to the widespread adoption of the written word (in some places) over the last few thousand. During historical periods, archaeology gives voice to those rendered invisible by their exclusion from historical documents. More fundamentally, archaeology provides novel insights into the material worlds that actively shape as well as reflect social life. Students will learn the fundamentals of archaeological research through the analysis of case studies in conjunction with a series of hands-on field and laboratory exercises. Chase.

346 Archaeology of Social Change (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 241 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) In the last 6,000 years people from all over the world have shifted from living in societies in which status and leadership was based on age, gender, and individual achievement to societies in which some people are born into superior social positions. In most societies today—including our own—small groups of people have access to greater resources and economic benefits for little reason other than their family history. How did this come about? Why did people allow themselves to become the subjects of others? Archaeological case studies are analyzed in an attempt to understand this fundamental transition in human society. Chase.

365 The Archaeology of Empire (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) The global interconnections and inequalities that characterize the twenty-first century have their origins in the sixteenth-century European imperial expansions that drew peoples from all regions of the globe into novel economic, political and ideological relationships that fundamentally transformed the identities of all parties involved. European imperialism, however, was not a unique incidence of this phenomenon, but was rather the most recent in a series of colonial encounters that began over 5,000 years ago as the institutions of the world's first cities expanded their influence beyond the floodplains of Mesopotamia. In this course students gain a more complete understanding of the modern world through the critical review of case studies including Uruk, Greek, Roman, Aztec, Incan and European civilizations. Chase.

Area Studies

238 South Asian Identities (1)
(Anthropology) An introduction to the peoples and cultures of South Asia (Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan). Examines issues including caste, South Asian religions, family life, colonialism, communal violence, popular culture and the South Asian diaspora. Chase.

248 Africa: Peoples and Cultures (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or 105, or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) A survey of African cultural diversity past and present. Explores the lives and livelihoods of African peoples through ethnographic case studies that span the continent. Engages stereotypes and challenges the ways in which Africa is popularly depicted in the media. Considers key issues in anthropology, including colonialism, conflict, ecology, economic development, food security, gender, childhood, religion, health, humanitarianism and globalization. Harnish.

256 Native North America (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) The historical and anthropological study of Native peoples of North America, with an emphasis on the twentieth century. Topics include federal policy, political movements, gender, the construction of identities and relationships between scholars and Native communities. Same as History 256. Staff.

263 Modern China (1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) Same as History 263. Staff.

264 International History of Modern Japan (1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) Same as International Studies 264. Yoshii.

Society and the Individual

222 Sociology of Childhood (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) Uses sociological theory and research findings to examine childhood and adolescence as historical constructs and social contexts (rather than developmental moments) and children as social actors in their own right (not only adults in the making). Pays particular attention to how race, class and gender shape experiences of childhood as we investigate what it means to be a child or adolescent in the United States, how children’s lives are shaped by their social contexts and how children as social actors shape the worlds in which they live. Verduzco-Baker.

225 Criminology (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) An introduction to the sociological study of crime, including varying definitions, causes, consequences, and societal responses. Scrutinizes multiple criminological theories (structural and interactionist), research methods, patterns in crime data, and public perception/media coverage, placing crime in a socio-historical context. Issues include criminal occupations, property crime, victimless crime, organized crime, white-collar crime, gangs, sex offenders, intimate violence and capital punishment. Melzer.

230 Men and Masculinities (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101, or Women's and Gender Studies 106 or 116, or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) Examines how biological males are transformed into boys/men who interact in the social world through shared gendered meanings. Analyzes various socio-historical constructions of masculinity both in the United States and beyond, paying particular attention to how these differ over time, across cultures and within subcultures. Focuses on gender as a central organizing principle of society, and how this socially constructed characteristic affects individuals (men and women), society and, quite literally, the world. Also examines relational aspects of gender including women and femininities, as well as comparing masculinities by race, ethnicity, class, age, sexual orientation, etc. Discusses structural inequalities, cultural similarities and differences, and individual issues related to masculinities. Melzer.

280 Children of Immigrants (1)
Same as Ethnic Studies 280. Verduzco-Baker, Staff.

336 Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 and junior standing or above, or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) The study of the relationship between personal experiences and society. Explores how our sense of self, identity, subjective experience, feelings, beliefs, and relationships to and interactions with others are shaped by and influence social life. Focuses on theoretical traditions and trends within micro-sociology and their applications and usefulness for empirical research. Special attention will be paid to connecting the micro-workings of social life to larger institutional, cultural and political processes and issues. Melzer.

360 Intimate Violence (1)
Prerequisites: A&S 101, 324 (or Psychology 204) or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) Examines violence between intimates, primarily (but not solely) within the United States, covering a range of interpersonal relationships (children, parents, spouses, partners, acquaintances, siblings, etc.) as well as various forms of abuse (emotional, physical, neglect, sexual assault/rape, etc.) Traces intimate violence socio-historically, including theoretical, methodological, empirical and applied issues and debates within the field. Analyzes the incidence and prevalence of intimate violence, and, in the process, attempts to identify causes and solutions. Focuses on the importance of structural gender inequality in shaping individuals' violent behavior and the degree to which gender inequality influences various forms of violence. Melzer.

Social Institutions

235 Global Transformations (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology or Sociology) Is "globalization" just a marketing slogan or does it actually describe a process involving profound change in life on this planet? Topics include communication and transportation technologies, political and economic developments, commerce and consumerism in the modern world. Considers relationships between the global and the local and explores whether the changes associated with globalization are best considered as progress or problem. Staff.

333 The Sociology of Sex and Gender (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or 105 or Women's and Gender Studies 106 or 116, or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) Examines the social construction and social consequences of gender difference and gender inequality with a specific focus on the United States. Gender theory and research will be used to explore masculinity and femininity as identities, as behavioral expectations and as organizing features of social life. Covers belief systems; broad social institutions such as family, employment, media and health; experiences of sexuality and violence; and individual behavior such as personal styles and modes of interacting with others. Focuses on how gender as an organizing feature of social life benefits some and is disadvantageous to others, paying special attention to how race, ethnicity, class and sexuality intersect with gender. Melzer.

345 Race and Ethnicity (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or 105 or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) Alternative theories of racial and ethnic relations, and their application to groups within the United States. Particular attention will be focused on the reasons for ethnic conflict and strategies for conflict resolution. Verduzco-Baker.

350 Comparative Families: A Global Perspective (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or 105 or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) What is the family? Is the family a "natural" unit or a social construct? Is the family a dying institution or is it merely changing? How do family structures, values and dynamics vary across cultures? How is family structure in the United States different from those in Nigeria, India, China, Sweden and Saudi Arabia? This course utilizes a comparative perspective to explore the changing family in its historical, cultural, economic, social and political contexts. Topics include variations in family patterns; marriage and related issues such as dating, mate selection, divorce, single parenting and family violence: poverty and stress in family life; communication; power relations; gender roles; and family policies in selected societies. Staff.

370 Social Stratification (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or 105 or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) An examination of the changing patterns of social stratification within the U.S. since World War II. Topics include income and wealth inequality, education and social mobility, the reorganization of the workplace, poverty and social welfare. Verduzco-Baker.

Theory and Methods

312 Sociological Theory (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 and junior standing, or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) An overview of sociological theory from classical to contemporary, and an assessment of how these theories frame research and analysis. Theorists range from the foundational work of Marx, Durkheim and Weber, to the more recent work of Parsons, Goffman and a number of critical and post-structuralist authors. Highly recommended for students who intend to do graduate work in the social sciences. Verduzco-Baker.

323 Qualitative Social Research (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 and junior standing, or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) An overview of qualitative social research methods with a focus on three key forms: ethnography, document analysis and interview. Examines research design and a variety of types of data collection and analysis as well as considering ethical issues in social research. Students design and carry out their own research project based on that semester’s theme. Verduzco-Baker.

324 Quantitative Social Research (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 and junior standing, or permission of instructor.
(Sociology) An overview of quantitative social research methods and statistics. Topics include problem formulation and connection between theories and research; research designs, measurement and sampling techniques; ethical issues in research; data processing and data analysis with discussion of descriptive statistics; hypothesis testing and chi-square tests of significance; correlation; and multiple regression models. Students design and carry out their own independent research projects in addition to an extensive application of SPSS in laboratory assignments using secondary data. Staff.

343 Theory and Method in Anthropology (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 105 or permission of instructor.
(Anthropology) Addresses questions surrounding what anthropologists should study and how they should study it. Considers how the basic assumptions, research methods, and the social conditions of anthropological practice have changed over time. Examines how anthropologists have been rethinking assumptions about culture, nature, power, the primitive and the modern, as well as the social and political conditions of research in colonial and post-colonial contexts. Also explores developments in biological anthropology, archaeology and other subfields. Staff.

Special Studies

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. May be taken more than once for credit. Staff.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) Staff.

408 Senior Paper (1)
Prerequisite: Senior standing, a major in the department.
(Anthropology or Sociology) An intensive study and written paper emphasizing a topic in either anthropology or sociology. Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
(Anthropology or Sociology) Staff.

Faculty

Danit Brown, chair and associate professor.
B.A., 1992, Oberlin College; B.A., 2001, Tel Aviv University; M.F.A., 2004, Indiana University. Appointed 2005.

Nels A. Christensen, associate professor.
A.B., 1993, California State University, Chico; M.A., 1997, Ph.D., 2005, Michigan State University. Appointed 2006.

Mary L. Collar, professor.
B.A., 1969, The University of Wisconsin; M.A., 1972, Ph.D., 1977, Pennsylvania State University. Appointed 1977.

Glenn J. Deutsch, visiting assistant professor.
B.A., 1977, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Ph.D., 2006, Western Michigan University. Appointed 2012.

Judith A. Lockyer, professor.
B.A., 1971, M.A., 1980, University of Kentucky; Ph.D., 1984, University of Michigan. Appointed 1985.

Ian F. MacInnes, professor.
B.A., 1987, Swarthmore College; M.A., 1990, Ph.D., 1995, University of Virginia. Appointed 1994.

Helena G. Mesa, associate professor.
B.A., 1994, Indiana University; M.F.A., 1997, University of Maryland; Ph.D., 2003, University of Houston. Appointed 2003.

Ashley Miller, assistant professor.
B.A., 2001, Vassar College; M.A., 2005, Ph.D., 2011, Indiana University. Appointed 2015.

Jessica F. Roberts, associate professor.
A.B., 1997, Dartmouth College; M.A., 1999, Ph.D., 2005, University of Michigan. Appointed 2005.

Introduction

The Albion College English curriculum is designed to provide training in literary analysis, research, and written communication. The major prepares students to read critically, to evaluate information, and to express ideas with clarity and grace. The department offers courses in English and U.S. literatures and traditions, creative writing, journalism, and literary theory. The curriculum includes the intensive study of the works of major writers, major periods of literary history, and the development of literary types. Upper division courses provide experience in critical approaches to literature; many explore certain theoretical considerations implicit in literary study, such as the question of canon formation and the impact of gender, race and ethnicity, and class on the creation and reception of literary works. Courses in writing and language are designed to develop students' mastery of their language and and their capacity for rigorous analysis. The writing curriculum includes basic and advanced work in expository writing, poetry, fiction, and creative nonfiction.

English Department Website

Career Opportunities

In addition to preparing students for the advanced study of language and literature, majoring in English is excellent preparation for professional study in law, linguistics, library science, higher education administration, and public relations. Trained to read carefully and write clearly, students go on to a wide variety of careers in which language and research play an important role, including journalism, editing and writing, and elementary and secondary teaching. Moreover, many students have chosen English as a second major in recent years, using it to extend and strengthen their preparation for medicine, business, and a variety of other fields.

Special Features

English majors enjoy a rich variety of research, writing, and internship opportunities both on and off campus. Writing and editorial positions on the online student newspaper and the annual literary magazine are available, and the department helps place students in off-campus programs in Great Britain, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. In the past several years, majors have completed off-campus internships with the MacNeil Lehrer News Hour, CNN, Rolling Stone magazine, and NBC News.

The department encourages qualified and interested majors to consider writing an honors thesis in English during their senior year. Successful completion of the thesis results in graduation with departmental honors in English.

Outstanding English majors are invited to join the Joseph J. Irwin Society, the English Department honorary.

The English Department sponsors a series of programs each year which bring distinguished writers and critics to campus for readings, lectures, and meetings with classes. Campus visitors have included Maya Angelou, Gwendolyn Brooks, Allen Ginsberg, Joy Harjo, Terrance Hayes, Marie Howe, Galway Kinnell, Li Young Lee, and Gary Snyder.

Departmental Policy on Advanced Placement Credit

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in English literature and composition will receive credit for English 151 (Introduction to Literature), which counts toward both the major and minor in English. Students who earn a 3 on this exam or have taken the Advanced Placement exam in English language and composition should consult with the department chair.

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