Spanish

Faculty

Mark E. Bollman, chair and professor.
B.A., 1986, Northwestern University; M.A., 1988, University of Michigan; Ph.D., 2001, Central Michigan University. Appointed 1999.

Paul L. Anderson, professor.
B.S., 1976, M.S., 1979, Ph.D., 1989, Colorado School of Mines. Appointed 1990.

Ellen J. Kamischke, visiting instructor.
B.S, 1979, Michigan Technological University; M.A.T., 1983, Michigan State University; M.S., 2013, Michigan Technological University. Appointed 2015.

Darren E. Mason, professor.
B.S., 1991, Ph.D., 1996, University of Minnesota. Appointed 2001.

David A. Reimann, professor.
B.S., 1986, University of Toledo; M.A., 1990, Ph.D., 1998, Wayne State University. Appointed 1996.

Introduction

The Mathematics and Computer Science Department at Albion College includes the disciplines of pure and applied mathematics, computer science and statistics.

The courses are structured to meet the overlapping needs of students who fall in one or more of the following categories: (1) those who wish to develop their appreciation of the power and beauty of mathematics; (2) those who wish to explore the dynamic field of computer science; (3) those who intend to pursue graduate work in mathematics, computer science or other related fields; (4) those who will exploit the applications of mathematics in the natural sciences, social sciences and other areas of quantitative studies; and (5) those who plan to enter the teaching profession in mathematics or computer science.

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Website

Career Opportunities

There has long been a demand in both industry and government for people with training in mathematics and statistics. The mathematics major who takes courses in computer science or statistics will enter an extremely favorable job market. There is also a need for secondary school teachers who are certified to teach mathematics or computer science. A major in mathematics provides a good foundation for further study in mathematics or for teaching on the secondary school level. With a degree in mathematics, it is also possible to gain admission to graduate school in other fields such as public policy, management and operations research.

Computer science students will enter a very favorable job market with opportunities in business, industry, government and private consulting. The study of fundamental principles of computer science and the strong mathematical component of this program fortify students with the lifelong learning skills essential for success in this rapidly changing field. Students with a mathematics major and a computer science minor will be prepared for graduate work in this or a related field.

Special Features

The Mathematics and Computer Science Department annually awards approximately $30,000 in scholarships in honor of E. R. Sleight, a beloved mathematics professor who taught at Albion from 1908 to 1948. Prospective students with strong interests in mathematics are encouraged to contact the department to apply for these scholarships. Additional awards are made to outstanding upperclass students in mathematics and computer science.

Each year the Mathematics and Computer Science Department nominates five mathematics majors to membership in the Mathematical Association of America. The J. R. Lancaster Award is presented to the student who best exemplifies the liberally educated mathematics student. The E. R. Sleight Prize and the Ronald C. Fryxell Prize are awarded to the outstanding seniors in mathematics and computer science. Each summer several students receive stipends as Kresge Fellows and from other sources for independent research projects in the mathematical sciences. The Michigan Alpha chapter (established at Albion in 1937) of the mathematics honorary Kappa Mu Epsilon promotes mathematical lectures, films and social events. Students participate in the Michigan Autumn Take-Home Challenge, the Lower Michigan Mathematics Competition, and at the national level, in the William Lowell Putnam Competition and the Mathematical Contest in Modeling. Students are encouraged to attend and present papers at departmental colloquia and at regional conferences in undergraduate mathematics. Internships and the Oak Ridge Science Semester provide additional opportunities for intensive study in the mathematical sciences.

The Math/Stat Computing Laboratory is designed especially for students in mathematics, statistics and computer science courses. This computer laboratory features microcomputers running Windows and a laser printer for high-resolution graphics and typesetting. Statistics students routinely analyze data with the Minitab statistical analysis program; graphing calculators and the Mathematica computer algebra system are integrated into precalculus, calculus and higher-level mathematics courses. This lab is part of Albion's campus-wide computer network connecting faculty offices, classrooms, laboratories, public computer areas, printers, the library automation system and residence hall rooms. From computers on the network, students can access their files, run software on the campus network, interact with other computers, send electronic mail and browse the World Wide Web.

The E. R. Sleight Computing Laboratory contains a network of workstations dedicated for use by computer science students. These computers run individually or in parallel under the Linux operating system.

Departmental Policy on Advanced Placement Credit

Credit earned through the Advanced Placement (AP) exams in calculus, computer science, or statistics may be applied, as appropriate, toward any major or minor in the department. Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Calculus AB exam, or the AB subscore of the Calculus BC exam, receive credit for Mathematics 141. Students who earn a 4 on the Calculus BC exam receive credit for Mathematics 141, and those who earn a 5 on this exam receive credit for both Mathematics 141 and Mathematics 143. Students who earn a score of 4 or 5 on the Computer Science A or Computer Science AB exam will receive credit for Computer Science 171. Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the statistics exam will receive credit for Mathematics 109.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major in Mathematics

There are four emphases for a mathematics major, as described below. The mathematics curriculum is highly sequential with a rigid and necessary prerequisite structure, and not all courses are offered each year. Students planning an academic program that includes a mathematics major, especially one including teacher certification (Tracks III and IV), are urged to consult with a member of the mathematics faculty early in their Albion career so that a proper sequence of courses may be arranged.

Failure to consider carefully the implications of course enrollment decisions may result in delayed graduation.

Foundation Courses
Mathematics 141: Calculus of a Single Variable I
Mathematics 143: Calculus of a Single Variable II
Computer Science 171: Introduction to Computer Science I
Mathematics 239: Discrete Structures
Mathematics 245: Multivariate Calculus
Mathematics 247: Differential Equations and Linear Algebra

The department may waive one or more of the foundation course requirements for students with advanced high school mathematics preparation.

Mathematics Major

The mathematics major leads toward immediate employment, graduate work in the mathematical sciences, or professional study in other fields.

  • 10 units in mathematics and computer science, including six units of foundation courses, plus four additional courses: Mathematics 331, 335; two additional units of mathematics course work at the 300-level. Students contemplating graduate study in mathematics should also take as many other 300-level mathematics courses as their schedules will allow, as well as course work in French, German or Russian.
  • Mathematics 299 and 399, Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/2 unit total)
  • Students interested in pure mathematics are encouraged to select elective courses from 309, 333, 342, 345 and 349 while students interested in applied mathematics should select courses from 309, 310, 311, 316, 326, 333, 349, 360, 370 and 380.

Mathematics Major with Actuarial Mathematics Emphasis

The mathematics major with actuarial mathematics emphasis leads toward immediate employment or further study in actuarial science or a related area.

  • 10 units in mathematics and computer science, including the six units of foundation courses, plus four additional courses: 309, 310, 311, 331.
  • Mathematics 299 and 399, Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/2 unit total).
  • 3 units of cognate courses: Economics and Management 101, 102 and 348.

Mathematics Major with Secondary Education Emphasis

The mathematics major with secondary education emphasis leads to secondary teacher certification. See “Requirements for Mathematics Major With Secondary Education Certification” below.

Mathematics Major with Elementary Education Emphasis

The mathematics major with elementary education emphasis leads to elementary teacher certification. See "Requirements for Mathematics Major with Elementary Education Certification" below.

Requirements for Minor in Mathematics

  • Five units in mathematics, including the three foundation courses, Mathematics 141, 143, 239, plus one from 245, 247 and one from 331, 335, 342, 349
  • Math 299—Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4 unit)..
  • Computer Science 171.

Not open to mathematics majors.

Requirements for Minor in Applied Mathematics

  • Five units in mathematics, including Mathematics 141, 143, 245, 247, plus one from 316, 326, 333, 360, 370, 380.
  • Math 299—Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4 unit).
  • Computer Science 171.

Not open to mathematics majors.

Requirements for Minor in Statistics

  • Six units in mathematics, including Mathematics 141, 143, 209, 245, 309, 310.
  • Math 299—Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4 unit).

Not open to mathematics majors.

Requirements for Minor in Computer Science

  • Five and one-quarter units in computer science, including 171, 173, and 299; plus three additional units at the 200-level or higher. At least two of these three units must be selected from 352, 354, 356 or 358.
  • Mathematics 141, 239.
  • Math 299—Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4 unit).
  • Students are encouraged to elect cognates in a specific field of interest in consultation with their adviser. Possible cognate areas include, but are not limited to, mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology and economics.

Requirements for Mathematics Major with Secondary Education Certification

  • 10 units in mathematics and computer science, including the six foundation courses, plus 309, 331, 335, 342.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Mathematics Minor with Secondary Education Certification

  • Five units in mathematics, including the three foundation courses, Mathematics 141, 143, 239, plus 335, 342. The department may waive one or more of the foundation course requirements for students with advanced high school mathematics preparation.
  • Matt 299—Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4 unit).
  • Mathematics 209, 245 and Computer Science 171 are recommended.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Mathematics Major with Elementary Education Certification

  • 10 units in mathematics and computer science, including six units of foundation courses, plus 309, 335, 342, 345.
  • Math 299 and 399—Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/2 unit).
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Other Requirements for All Mathematics Majors and Minors and Computer Science Minors

  • A minimum grade of 2.0 is required in any mathematics course used as a prerequisite for another mathematics course.
  • While a student may begin with Mathematics 125 and still complete a major, it is recommended that prospective majors take a similar course in high school if at all possible.
  • No course to be counted toward a major or minor in mathematics may be taken on a credit/no credit basis, except Mathematics 299 and 399, which are only offered as credit/no credit courses.
  • Students majoring or minoring in mathematics or minoring in computer science are expected to furnish the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science with information about their course work and activities related to the department. The department faculty will use this information when nominating students for awards, scholarships and membership in professional societies, and as the basis for letters of recommendation. Students are encouraged to include this information on their personal World Wide Web pages or to develop a portfolio Web page for their activities related to their major.

Mathematics Courses

Mathematics

Initial course placements in mathematics and computer science are generally determined by the Mathematics Placement Test. After students take their first course, they must take courses in sequence as determined by the departmental prerequisites. Any exceptions must be approved by the course instructor and department chair.

104 Mathematics for Elementary Teachers (1)
Prerequisite: Three years of college-preparatory mathematics (or its equivalent). Priority given to students in the elementary education program.
An investigation of mathematics (arithmetic, geometry, algebra, problem solving) for elementary school teachers. Topics are selected from: sets, relations and functions; numeration systems; whole numbers and their operations; number theory; rational numbers and fractions; decimals and real numbers; geometry and measurement; and probability and statistics. Emphasizes doing mathematics, using manipulatives, and developing intuition and problem-solving skills. Laboratory. Bollman.

119 Finite Mathematics for Decision Making (1)
An introduction to discrete mathematics. Applications are drawn from diverse areas including biological sciences, economics, political science and personal finance. Topics typically include graph theory, management science, statistics, the mathematics of social choice, game theory and the logical foundations of mathematics. Investigation and creation of mathematical models. Intended for non-majors. Staff.

123 Mathematics for the Liberal Arts (1)
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
A study of selected topics in mathematics drawn from among algebra, geometry, statistics, probability, discrete mathematics, and other fields of mathematics as determined by the instructor. Staff.

125 Precalculus (1)
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
A modern, unified approach to algebra, trigonometry, logarithms and analytical geometry based on the concept of a function. Linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and inequalities, polynomials and rational functions, logarithms and exponential functions, trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions, and analytic geometry (the circle, the parabola, the ellipse and the hyperbola) are normally covered. Emphasizes the use of graphing calculators and the use of mathematics as a problem-solving tool. Covers applications in natural science, social science and business. Serves as a preparation for calculus. Well-prepared students who already have a strong working knowledge of algebra, trigonometry and logarithms should elect Mathematics 141 in place of Mathematics 125. A graphing calculator is required. Staff.

141 Calculus of a Single Variable I (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 125 or permission of department.
Mathematics 141 and 143 constitute a thorough introduction to calculus for students who intend to continue in mathematics and for those who will use calculus in other fields such as science and engineering. Mathematics 141 covers limits, continuity, derivatives and a brief introduction to integration, as well as applications to problems in related rates, optimization, solid geometry and elementary mechanics. Requires a strong working knowledge of algebra and trigonometry. Students who are weak in these areas should elect Mathematics 125. A graphing calculator is required. Staff.

143 Calculus of a Single Variable II (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 141 or permission of department.
Second half of the standard one-year calculus sequence (see Mathematics 141 above). Mathematics 143 covers techniques of integration, applications of the integral, simple differential equations with their associated mathematical models, and sequences and series. Requires a strong working knowledge of algebra, trigonometry, derivatives, and some familiarity with integration, including Riemann sums and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students with a calculus background who are weak in these areas should elect Mathematics 141. A graphing calculator is required. Staff.

209 An Introduction to Statistics (1)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
Statistics is the art/science of collecting and interpreting data. Topics include probability, probability distributions which include the binomial and normal distributions, the central limit theorem, sampling distributions, confidence interval estimation, and hypothesis testing. Students will then advance to linear regressions, goodness-of-fit tests, and analysis of variance. Emphasis is placed on multiple applications in the life and social sciences. Anderson, Bollman.

239 Discrete Structures (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 141.
A survey of discrete mathematics with topics selected from set theory, functions and relations, number theory, combinatorics, graph theory, logic (predicate calculus, quantifiers), introduction to proof techniques, and probability. Staff.

245 Multivariate Calculus (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 143.
Vectors, inner and cross products, and vector-valued functions including parametric representations of curves and surfaces in space. Partial differentiation, the chain rule, function gradients, implicit differentiation, multivariate optimization, and Lagrange multipliers, multiple integrals and vector analysis, including divergence and curl of vector fields, as well as the theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss. Mason.

247 Differential Equations and Linear Algebra (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 245.
First-order differential equations and numerical algorithms of Euler and Runge-Kutta. Linear algebraic systems, Gaussian elimination, row-echelon form matrix algebra, inverses and determinants. Vector spaces, subspaces, linear independence, bases, span, dimension, linear mappings and function spaces. Second and higher-order linear differential equations. Eigenvectors, eigenvalues and spectral decomposition methods. First-order linear differential systems, including solutions methods using matrix exponentials. Applications focus on problems in physics, chemistry, biology, economics and engineering. Additional topics may include nonlinear dynamical systems, stability theory, transform theory and power series solutions. Mason.

309 Mathematical Statistics (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 245. Mathematics 247 is recommended.
A mathematical study of probability distributions, random sampling, and topics selected from statistical theory: estimation, hypothesis testing and regression. Anderson.

310 Actuarial Statistics (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 309.
A continuation of Mathematics 309 that covers many of the diverse methods in applied probability and statistics for students aspiring to careers in insurance, actuarial science, and finance. Covers loss distributions, multivariate distributions, conditional expectation, mixture distributions, risk theory, and generalized linear models. The course is organized specifically to meet the needs of students preparing for the Society of Actuaries and Casualty Actuarial Society qualifying examination P/1. Anderson.

311 Regression and Time Series Models
Covers two topics in detail: multiple linear regression analysis and time series analysis. Inherent to both topics: parsimonious linear models, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. Uses the matrix approach for multiple linear regression, and the Box-Jenkins methodology for constructing autoregressive-integrated moving average (ARIMA) models for time series analysis. Employs the statistical package MINITAB for analyzing all real-world data sets. Anderson.

316 Numerical Analysis (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 247 and Computer Science 171.
Methods of obtaining numerical solutions to mathematical problems. Stresses the implementation and error analysis of algorithms. Topics include solution of non-linear equations, systems of equations, interpolating polynomials, numerical integration and differentiation, numerical solution to ordinary differential equations, and curve fitting. Offered in alternate years. Same as Computer Science 316. Mason.

326 Operations Research (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 247.
An introduction to computational methods in mathematical modeling including linear programming and Markov chains. Applications in business, economics and systems engineering. Knowledge of probability is helpful. Offered in alternate years. Same as Computer Science 326. Mason.

331 Real Analysis (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 245 and 239.
A study of the concepts underlying calculus of a single variable: The completeness property of the real number system, convergence, continuity, properties of elementary functions, the derivative and the Riemann integral. Bollman.

333 Complex Analysis (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and 245.
An introduction to complex variable theory. Specific topics to be covered include elementary and analytic functions, differentiation and integration in the complex plane, series representations, residues and poles, transform theory, and conformal mapping. Offered in alternate years. Bollman.

335 Abstract Algebra (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and 247.
Properties of the integers, real number system and other familiar algebraic entities are viewed abstractly in structures such as groups, semigroups, rings and fields. Homomorphisms and isomorphisms (functions compatible with the algebraic operations) illuminate the underlying similarities among these structures. Students will develop their skills in mathematical writing and presentations. Bollman.

342 Geometry (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 143 and 239.
The logical foundation of Euclidean geometry, including the axiom systems of Euclid and Hilbert, and their philosophical implications. An introduction to hyperbolic, elliptic and projective geometry. Employs software such as Geometer’s Sketchpad to illustrate course topics. Bollman.

345 History of Mathematics (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 141.
A study of the history and evolution of mathematical ideas and their significance, from approximately 3500 B.C.E. to the present. Topics include number systems, arithmetic, Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry, algebra, calculus, probability, number theory and applied mathematics. Offered in alternate years. Bollman.

349 Advanced Linear Algebra (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and 247.
A continued study of linear algebra as begun in 247. Topics may include abstract vector spaces, dimension, normed linear spaces, inner product spaces, canonical forms, unitary and Hermitian matrices, factorization, eigenvector analysis, and infinite-dimensional spaces. Offered in alternate years. Bollman.

360 Mathematical Modeling (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 247 and Computer Science 171.
An introduction to analytical methods in mathematical modeling, including nonlinear optimization, dynamical systems and random processes. Applications in physics, biology, economics and systems engineering. Knowledge of probability and statistics is helpful. Same as Computer Science 360. Mason.

368 Topology (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and 245.
An introduction to the basic concepts of point set topology. Fundamental concepts of topological spaces including open and closed sets, limit points, continuous functions, as well as the product, subspace, metric, and quotient topology. Connectedness and compactness with applications to the real line. Countability and separation axioms including Hausdorff, regular, and normal spaces. Urysohn’s Lemma and Metrization Theorem. Tychonoff’s Theorem. Topics from algebraic topology if time permits. Mason, Bollman.

370 Partial Differential Equations (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and 247. Mathematics 331 recommended.
A study of the theory and applications of partial differential equations (PDEs). Linear and nonlinear PDEs, including quasilinear first order equations, conservation laws, discontinuous solutions, classification of PDEs, wave propagation in multiple space dimensions, Fourier analysis and separation of variables, Sturm-Liouville theory, fundamental solutions for equations of parabolic and elliptic type, including the maximum principle. Applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and physics. Offered in alternate years. Mason.

375 Introduction to Solid Mechanics (1)
Prerequisites: Physics 167 and 168; Math 245.
Statics: Forces, moments and couples; equilibrium of particles and rigid bodies; trusses and frames; distributed loads. Mechanics: Stress/strain, classification of material behavior, generalized Hooke's law. Engineering applications: Axial loads, torsion of circular rods and tubes, bending and shear stresses in beams, deflection of beams, combined stresses, stress and strain transformation, Mohr's circle, elastic stability/buckling of columns. Same as Physics 375. Mason.

380 Mathematical Physics (1)
Same as Physics 380. Staff.

Computer Science

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science reserves the right to deny enrollment to students taking courses out of sequence as determined by prerequisites.

151 Information Technology (1)
Intended for the liberal arts student who wants to understand and better use information technology. Topics include how computers work, the Internet and World Wide Web, new trends in computing such as mobile computing and peer-to-peer networks, how software development differs from traditional manufacturing, how computing is changing our culture and laws, current trends in computer crime, security, and privacy. Additional topics are drawn from current events and issues. Laboratory. Does not count toward the computer science major or minor. Staff.

171 Introduction to Computer Science I (1)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 125 (or equivalent) or permission of instructor.
Designed to be the first computer science course taken by students in mathematics and computer science. Topics include fundamentals of computation and algorithmic problem-solving, data types, control structures, the object-oriented programming paradigm and applications. Introduces a high-level programming language such as Java or Python. Reimann.

172 Accelerated Introduction to Computer Programming (1/2)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
Intended for students receiving AP or transfer credit for CS 171. It is recommended that such students take this course prior to enrolling in additional computer science courses. An overview of programming in the same high-level language used in CS 171. Reimann.

173 Introduction to Computer Science II (1)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 171.
A continuation of Computer Science 171. Emphasizes advanced object-oriented programming (interfaces, multiple inheritance, reflections), abstract data types (stacks, queues, lists, strings, trees, graphics, etc.) and analysis of algorithms. Other topics include recursion, searching and sorting, simulation and an introduction to some of the advanced areas of computer science, e.g., computer organization, artificial intelligence and user interfaces. Students refine their programming skills in a high-level programming language such as Java or Python. Reimann.

256 Practicum in Programming Languages (1/4)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 171 or permission of instructor.
Designed to teach an additional computer language beyond those currently used in the computer science courses. Emphasizes writing and debugging programs that use the special features of the language. FORTRAN and C are the languages that have been taught most recently. Special sections of this course have been offered that are devoted to developing problem-solving skills in computer programming. Staff.

261 Computers, the User and Society (1)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 171.
An examination of how computers are used and how computers fit into society. Topics include user interface design, human-centered software development and evaluation, software reliability, social context of computers, professional and ethical responsibilities for technology professionals, intellectual property rights, privacy and civil liberties, computer crime. Offered every third year. Reimann, Staff.

263 Operating Systems and Networks (1)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 173.
The role of operating systems, concurrency and deadlock avoidance, memory management, client-server models, device management, networking, LANs and WANs, TCP/IP, network architectures, security, trends in networks such as wireless networks and the Internet. Offered every third year. Reimann.

265 Database Programming (1)
Prerequisites: Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 239.
Fundamental concepts of database management systems: the relational data model, relational algebra, and normal forms, file organization and index structures, and the query language SQL and embedded SQL. Offered every third year. Reimann, Staff.

271 Artificial Intelligence (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and Computer Science 173.
Basic techniques of artificial intelligence including knowledge representation and reasoning, problem-solving and planning, game playing, and learning. Covers AI programming and languages. Offered every third year. Staff.

273 Computer Graphics and Image Processing (1)
Prerequisites: Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 236 or 247.
A unified introduction to image synthesis and image analysis aimed at students with an interest in computer graphics, computer vision or the visual arts. Covers the basics of image generation, image manipulation and digital special effects. Includes a significant programming project using the OpenGL programming interface. Offered every third year. Reimann.

275 Software Development (1)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 173.
An introduction to the techniques of developing large software projects including unit testing, version control and build management. Covers the popular industrial languages C and C++ and includes a large-group programming project. Offered every third year. Reimann, Staff.

316 Numerical Analysis (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 247 and Computer Science 171.
Methods of obtaining numerical solutions to mathematical problems. Stresses the implementation and error analysis of algorithms. Topics include solution of non-linear equations, systems of equations, interpolating polynomials, numerical integration and differentiation, numerical solutions to ordinary differential equations, and curve fitting. Offered in alternate years. Same as Mathematics 316. Mason.

326 Operations Research (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 247.
An introduction to computational methods in mathematical modeling including linear programming and Markov chains. Applications in business, economics and systems engineering. Knowledge of probability is helpful. Offered in alternate years. Same as Mathematics 326. Mason.

352 Algorithms (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and Computer Science 171.
Focuses on the design and efficiency of algorithms. Covers the basic algorithm paradigms including graph traversals, greedy algorithms, divide and conquer, dynamic programming and flow algorithms. Introduces complexity theory, NP-completeness and polynomial-time reductions. Additional topics may include approximation algorithms, randomized algorithms and linear programming. Offered in alternate years. Reimann.

354 Computer Organization (1)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 173.
Organization of digital computers: digital logic, arithmetic, assembly language, data paths, memory, input-output, secondary storage devices, multiprocessors and computer performance. Programming tools and techniques are also discussed with emphasis on their application in assembly language. Offered in alternate years. Reimann.

356 Programming Languages (1)
Prerequisite: Computer Science 173.
A survey of the structure of programming languages and programming as an abstract concept. Topics include syntax and semantics, scope rules, environments, types, procedures, parameters, overloading, parametric polymorphism and inheritance. Projects include programming in the functional paradigm using the Scheme programming language and development of a language interpreter. Offered in alternate years. Reimann.

358 Foundations of Computing (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 239 and Computer Science 171.
The theoretical underpinnings of computer science: models of computation including automata, Turing machines, circuits, the Chomsky language hierarchy, Church’s thesis, computable and noncomputable functions, recursive and recursively enumerable sets, reducibility and introduction to complexity theory. Bollman.

360 Mathematical Modeling (1)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 247 and Computer Science 171.
An introduction to analytical methods in mathematical modeling including nonlinear optimization, dynamical systems and random processes. Applications in physics, biology, economics and systems engineering. Knowledge of probability and statistics will be helpful. Same as Mathematics 360. Mason.

Special Studies

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff

299 Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4)
Prerequisite: Mathematics 143 or Computer Science 173.
Selected topics in mathematics and computer science as presented by students, departmental faculty and visiting speakers. Requirements include written summaries of each presentation and a paper on a mathematics/computer science topic of personal interest. Same as Computer Science 299. Staff.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

399 Colloquium in Mathematics and Computer Science (1/4)
Prerequisites: Mathematics 299 and senior standing.
Selected topics in mathematics and computer science as presented by students, departmental faculty and visiting speakers. Requirements include written summaries of each presentation, a departmental major assessment examination and an oral presentation on a mathematics/computer science topic of personal interest. Offered only on a credit/no credit basis. Same as Computer Science 399. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Staff.

Faculty

Marcy S. Sacks, chair and John S. Ludington Professor of History.
B.S., 1991, Cornell University; M.A., 1993, Ph.D., 1999, University of California, Berkeley. Appointed 1999.

Geoffrey C. Cocks, professor.
A.B., 1970, Occidental College; M.A., 1971, Ph.D., 1975, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed 1975.

Wesley A. Dick, professor.
A.B., 1961, Whitman College; M.A., 1965, Ph.D., 1973, University of Washington. Appointed 1968.

Deborah E. Kanter, Julian S. Rammelkamp Professor of History.
A.B., 1984, University of Michigan; M.A., 1987, Ph.D., 1993, University of Virginia. Appointed 1992.

Affiliated Faculty

Susan P. Conner, professor.
B.A., 1969, Armstrong State College; M.A., 1974, Ph.D., 1977, Florida State University. Appointed 2008.

Trisha Franzen, professor of women's and gender studies.
B.A., 1978, State University of New York, Buffalo; M.A., 1984, Ph.D., 1990, University of New Mexico. Appointed 2003.

Midori Yoshii, associate professor of international studies.
B.A., 1986, M.A., 1988, Tsuda College Tokyo; M.A., 1991, Ph.D., 2003, Boston University. Appointed 2004.

Introduction

The History Department’s mission asks:

How did people live in the past?
What forces and factors shaped their lives?
How did their choices shape the world we live in today?

The mission of the History Department is to foster creative and analytical thinkers who are interested in questions of how human societies change over time. History students learn to discern the institutional, ideological and material conditions that shape the ways in which people interact with one another, whether in the context of a given society or across societies. They learn that prevailing historical explanations are themselves subject to questioning and refashioning, and they become aware of how different explanations influence present-day perceptions. By analyzing primary and secondary sources and by communicating the results of their analysis in compelling, cogent prose, students also learn to become active participants in the writing and critiquing of history itself.

History Department Website

Career Opportunities

As they study the past, history majors obtain analytical and writing skills and develop an appreciation of long-range trends. Graduates therefore enter fields from futures forecasting and management training to the law, public service and journalism. The knowledge gained as a history major can also lead to careers in teaching--secondary and college--as well as archival and museum work. Finally, students have the opportunity to experience personal development through the study of the past--useful in all careers, as in life itself.

Students planning graduate work in history should include advanced course work in at least one foreign language. Completion of a thesis is also highly recommended.

Special Features

  • Students are encouraged to participate in Albion's off-campus programs. Experience elsewhere in the U.S. or in a foreign country--whether for a summer, a semester or a year--provides a rich background for history majors.
  • The faculty of the Department of History urge qualified and interested history majors to consider writing an honors thesis in history. Successful completion of the thesis will result in graduation with departmental honors in history. Candidates for honors must have a 3.0 grade point average or above in the major and must form a committee composed of two faculty members to supervise the thesis work. At least one of the committee members must be from the Department of History, although the department encourages the participation of faculty members from other disciplines and the pursuit of interdisciplinary work in general. The thesis may be based on earlier course work, but such papers must be significantly revised and expanded for submission as a departmental honors thesis.

Each thesis candidate must schedule at least one full unit of directed study (i.e., two 411s or one 412) in a semester (or semesters) immediately prior to the semester the thesis is due. It is recommended that a draft of the entire thesis be completed by the end of the last semester of directed study prior to the semester the thesis is due.

The name of each thesis candidate and the working title of the thesis must be submitted to the Prentiss M. Brown Honors Institute director by September 15 for May graduates and by April 15 for December graduates. For spring semester, the deadline for completion of the thesis is April 1; for fall semester the deadline is December 1. Each thesis committee will determine the procedures and schedule for meeting the completion deadline. Honors theses in history must conform to The Chicago Manual of Style. Copies of the guidelines for the preparation and submission of theses are available from the Brown Honors Institute director.

Departmental Policy on Advanced Placement Credit

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in European history will receive one unit of credit for History 103.

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement exam in United States history will receive one unit of credit for History 101.

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement exam in world history will receive one unit of credit for History 190.

Only two 100-level history courses may be counted toward the history major.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major

  • A minimum of eight units in history, including two units from Asian and/or Latin American history, two units from European history, and two units from United States history.
  • A minimum of one unit selected from courses numbered 370 to 402 (excluding 388, 389, 391, 392).
  • All history courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • No more than three 100-level units may be counted toward the major.
  • No more than one unit of 391, 392 may be counted toward a major. Departmental approval is required.

Note: 300-level courses are open to sophomores, juniors and seniors.

Requirements for Minor

  • Five units in history, in at least three geographical fields.
  • All courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.
  • No more than three 100-level units may be counted toward the minor.

Requirements for Major with Elementary or Secondary Education Certification

  • Nine units in history, including: 102, 111, 131, 132, 217, 300, and 382 or another course numbered History 370 or above with prior approval of the History Department chair, and two elective history courses at the 200-level or higher (one of which must be in United States history).
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Minor with Secondary Education Certification

  • Six units in history, including 102, 111, 131, 132, 217, and 300.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Social Studies Major with Elementary or Secondary Education Certification

Students interested in pursuing elementary or secondary education certification in social studies may choose to major in social studies. he detailed requirements for the major with elementary certification and secondary certification are provided in this catalog or are available from the Education Department.

History Courses

Asian and Latin American History

111 East Asia: Cultures and Civilizations (1)
A survey of the cultural, political and economic interactions among the societies of East Asia from the sixth century to the present, with an emphasis on the history of China, Japan and Korea. Major themes include the historical construction of "East Asian" regional identity; traditional culture; imperialism and colonialism; nationalist movements; and the debate over "Asian values" and modern economic development. Staff.

142 Modern Latin America History (1)
An introduction to Latin America from independence in the 1820s to the present. Native Americans, slaves and European immigrants struggled with elites to form societies of "order and progress." Films and oral histories show how the world economy affected working men and women and their responses: revolutions, religion, nationalism and popular politics. Kanter.

263 Modern China (1)
Analyzes the major events, ideologies and individuals that have shaped Chinese state and society from 1644 to the present. Major themes include Confucianism and traditional culture; foreign imperialism and nationalism; the Maoist years; and political dissent and social change in the 1980s and 1990s. Same as Anthropology and Sociology 263. Staff.

264 An International History of Modern Japan (1)
Same as International Studies 264. Yoshii.

270 Latin American Immigration and the U.S. (1)
Why do Latin Americans leave their countries? What are their experiences of entering and living in the U.S.? How has their emigration impacted both their homelands and U.S. society? Emphasis on Mexicans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans in the twentieth century and the development of new “Latino” identities. Kanter.

295 Chinese Medicine Past and Present (1)
Introduces the basic principles of traditional Chinese medicine and examines the historical developments that allowed it to become a prominent part of "alternative medicine" throughout the world today. Explores how people in China sought answers to the universal questions that have shaped all healing systems: How do the body and mind function, and how are they related? How should we classify different illnesses and their causes? How do we know if a treatment actually works? What kind of people are qualified to practice medicine? Considers how medical ideas change over time and place. Staff.

300 Slave Societies of the Americas (1)
Comparative study of the development of race-based slavery in Spanish America, Brazil, the Caribbean and the U.S. South. Discusses the Middle Passage, plantation life, slave religion, resistance, emancipation and its aftermath. Invites students to consider the history of ethnic relations within multiracial societies. Kanter.

301 Gender and Sexuality in the 'Hispanic' World (1)
Intensive look at gender relations, family and morality in Hispanic societies. Includes medieval Spain, colonial and modern Latin America, and Latina/os in the U.S. Asks how ideological and social constructs such as patriarchy and the code of honor have changed in response to conquest, multiracial societies and immigration. Kanter.

365 Women, Society and Gender in East Asia (1)
An in-depth study of the construction of gender in East Asia, focusing primarily on women in China, Japan and Korea from 1600 to the present. Major topics include sexuality and reproduction; family structure and social class; religion; language; and the changing roles of men. Staff.

371 Latin American-U.S. Relations (1)
Explores essential elements that have shaped U.S. influence in Latin America from the 1820s to the present day, examining official policy as well as ideology, cultural representations, the media and trade issues. Considers this history from multiple perspectives, looking north and looking south, and how notions of race, religion and gender have played into inter-American relations.  Analysis of primary source materials is integral. Kanter.

382 East Asian Environmental History (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
Investigates how people in China and Japan have thought about and interacted with their environment in different historical settings. Explores the way in which East Asian religions and philosophies explain the cosmos and the place of humans and non-humans within it, and the impact of imperialism, industrialization, and revolution on environmental thinking and policies during the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries. Topics include Confucian views of stewardship, Daoist cosmology, Shinto ritual, feng shui, environment and disease, Communist state building and environmental exploitation, and industrial pollution. Staff.

399 Contact and Conquest in the Americas (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
1492 marked the first of many meetings between Europeans and native American peoples. This seminar takes an intensive look at the remarkable encounters that occurred during the first century of European contact. Readings center on primary sources: written and pictorial records from that era that tell of meetings in the Caribbean, Mexico, Brazil, Florida and Canada. These texts require critical reading by class participants. Not offered every year. Kanter.

European History

102 Ancient and Medieval Worlds (1)
A survey from 3000 B.C.E. to the Renaissance, including Mesopotamian, Greek, Roman, Carolingian and European societies. Religion, politics, war, thought, society and family issues will be discussed. Staff.

103 1500 Europe 2000 (1)
Europe from the Renaissance to the end of the twentieth century. Major topics include: Wars of Religion, French and Industrial Revolutions, and war and peace in the twentieth century. Cocks.

217 1789 Europe 1918 (1)
Europe from the French and Industrial Revolutions to the end of the First World War as reflected in history, literature and film. Cocks.

218 1918 Europe 1989 (1)
Europe from the end of the First World War to the end of its Cold War partition reflected in history, literature and film. Cocks.

229 Film Images of World War II (1)
The history of the Second World War and world films made about the war from the 1930s to the present. (Film fee). Same as Political Science 229. Cocks, Grossman.

251 Ancient Greece (1)
Follows the development of ancient Greek civilization from the middle of the second millennium BCE through the final Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BCE, with special attention to the Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods. Surveys political and military history as well as social and cultural history, including such topics as art, architecture, athletics, drama, literature, leisure, philosophy, town-planning, religion, sexuality and work. Staff.

252 Ancient Rome (1)
An examination of ancient Roman history from the legendary foundation of the city in 753 BCE through the Republican Period, the Principate, and the Dominate, to the "fall" of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D. Covers the evolution of the Roman constitution and the spread of Roman imperial domination throughout the Mediterranean, as well as important social, cultural, and economic phenomena.Staff.

308 Victorian Britain (1)
The cultural, social and political history of Great Britain during the nineteenth century, with an emphasis on deconstructing the prevailing mythology of prudery and progress. Also examines issues of gender, class and ethnicity. Staff.

309 Pax Britannica: The British Empire (1)
An exploration of the varied, complex and fascinating phenomenon that was the British Empire from its late eighteenth-century crisis, through its unparalleled global predominance in the nineteenth century, to its dissolution/transformation in the middle years of the twentieth century. Staff.

313 1815 Russia 1945 (1)
Russia from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the end of the Second World War: the collapse of the tsarist autocracy, the Bolshevik revolution, and Russia's struggles within itself and against the outside world. Cocks.

375 The Great War (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
An exploration of the origins, conduct and consequences of the First World War, with special attention to cultural factors as well as political, economic, social and military issues. Staff.

385 British India (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
The history of the rise and fall of British rule over the Indian subcontinent between 1757 and 1947, with special attention to the intellectual and cultural components of the colonial encounter between Britons and the peoples of South Asia. Staff.

390 Nazi Germany (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
Nazi Germany through history, literature and film in the contexts of modern German and European history. Cocks.

395 The Irrational in History (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
An introduction to historical aspects of the irrational in human society and the application of psychodynamic models of the mind to the study of history. Topics include: the history of mental illness and its management; the science and profession of psychiatry; sexuality and gender; psychoanalytic drive psychology; ego psychology; object relations theory; self psychology; Lacanian theory; psychobiography; and psychohistory. Cocks.

United States History

101 American Dreams and Realities (1)
One-semester thematic approach to understanding the American experience from its beginning to the present. The course will attempt to aid students in answering such questions as: "What are my values and how are they connected to the historical past?" Witch hunts, the frontier, violence, the city, technology, war (Hiroshima & Vietnam), success, morals, women, immigration, racism, reform and the environment will be among the themes explored in a search towards defining the American character. Dick.

121 Early America: Three Worlds Meet (1)
Early colonial America, with an emphasis on the Caribbean, Mexico, the Southwest, British North America and New France from 1492 to the 1770s. Readings and films focus on the Americas as a meeting place for indigenous peoples, Europeans and Africans. Students will analyze the varied realities of conquest, native population decline and conversion, the brutalities of slavery, and the evolution of ideas about race in the New World. Not offered every year. Kanter.

131 The United States from Colonization to 1877 (1)
Introductory survey of United States history from pre-settlement of Europeans through the fall of Reconstruction. Examines the multicultural origins of the United States; the economic, social and political course to independence; the early national period; the Jacksonian era; and the causes and results of the Civil War. Also focuses on historical methodology. Sacks.

132 The United States since 1877 (1)
Introductory survey of American civilization from Reconstruction to the present, encompassing the ways that Americans have responded to the rise of the city, industrialization, immigration, imperialism, world wars, the atomic bomb, racial turmoil, changing roles of men and women, rise of the welfare state and environmental controversies. Recommended for pre-law students. Dick.

237 America in Crisis: Great Depression, World War II and Cold War (1)
America from 1929 to 1960: Stock market crash, Great Depression, Dust Bowl, New Deal, FDR and Hitler, "The Good War," Hiroshima and Nagasaki, McCarthyism and the Red Scare, Baby Boom and "We like Ike." Stress on historical controversies, the roles of workers, women and minorities and the significance of the environment. Dick.

242 African American History from Africa to 1865 (1)
A history of people of African descent in the United States from their African roots through the end of the Civil War. Stress on the development of slavery and racism in the colonial period; the tensions between slavery and freedom; slave culture, family and religion; race relations in the North; and the black experience in the Civil War. Readings will be drawn from slave narratives as well as historical monographs. Sacks.

243 African American History, 1865 to the Present (1)
A history of black people in the United States from the end of the Civil War to the present. Stress on the rise and fall of Reconstruction, Jim Crow, black migration to the cities, the Harlem Renaissance, the civil rights movement and contemporary issues in race relations. Sacks.

256 Native North America (1)
Same as A&S 256. Staff.

333 Colonial America (1)
In-depth study of the British North American colonies from first settlement. Concentration on social history: the interaction of different cultures and races; how people lived; why Europeans came to America, and what happened to them once they arrived. Specific topics include puritanism; witchcraft; the impact of disease and the fur trade on the native population; and the development of slavery. Sacks.

337 Environmental History (1)
Focus on the historical roots of contemporary environmental problems. Analysis of both the destructive and the conservation sides of the American experience. Native American perspectives, women and nature, technology, Thoreau, John Muir, energy crisis, ecology as the subversive science, a land ethic, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, and environmental impacts (DDT, Love Canal, atomic testing, PBB, dioxin, acid rain) are stressed. Concentration on America, but within a global frame of reference. Interdisciplinary emphasis that invites students from a variety of majors, particularly those in the sciences and those treating public policy issues. Special opportunities for those who enjoy the out-of-doors. Dick.

340 History of Women in the U.S., 1877-Present (1)
Prerequisite: Previous course work in women's studies or history.
Does some shared history link American Indian girls sent to BIA boarding schools at the turn of the century with the immigrant girls who labored for the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory? How is "women's" history different? What difference does women's history make to U.S. history? This course considers such questions by examining the situations of women in the U.S. from 1877 forward. It introduces students to the theories and methods of women's history that scholars have developed over the last quarter century. Central to this course is the recognition that women's experiences are not simple parallels to men's, and involve differences among women such as those based on sexuality, class, race and regional factors. Franzen.

347 Race and Sports in America (1)
Sport has long occupied a place at the heart of American culture and society. Organized athletics have also served as symbolic sites of protest, power and inclusion for the nation’s racial minorities. This course explores the history of American sports as a way to understand the profound impact that the phenomenon of athletic competition has had in the development of American race relations with particular attention paid to the experiences of African American athletes. Sacks.

380 Harlem Renaissance (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
In-depth study of the "New Negro" movement of the 1920s with its emphasis on the emergence of a black artistic community. Examination of the major literary figures of black America in that era, as well as artists, intellectuals and political activists. Considerable focus on the racial climate of the post-World War I period that served as a backdrop to the Harlem Renaissance. Sacks.

381 Race and Nationality in American Life (1)
The story of uprooted ethnic, religious and racial groups from the first arrival in North America of Europeans through the age of American imperialism in the early twentieth century. The America of asylum and freedom is compared to the traditions of nativism and racism by examining Afro-, Asian-, Euro-, Mexican-, and Native American experiences. Sacks.

398 The 1960s (1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
In-depth examination of a tumultuous decade: civil rights and black power, student protest and New Left, counterculture and Woodstock generation, Vietnam and the anti-war movement, the "other America'' and the War on Poverty, Silent Spring and Earth Day, liberation movements, JFK, LBJ, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Black Panthers, Detroit Riot, Freedom Summer, Jackson State, Kent State, Watergate, FBI, Feminine Mystique, Cesar Chavez, David Brower, and Rachel Carson. Dick.

Global

260 An International History of the Cold War (1)
Same as International Studies 260. Yoshii.

310 Power and Culture in the Asia-Pacific Region (1)
Same as International Studies 310. Yoshii.

Special Studies

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. May be taken more than once for credit. Staff.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.
Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Staff.

Faculty

Beth Z. Lincoln, co-chair and professor.
A.B., 1973, Smith College; Ph.D., 1985, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed 1981.

Timothy N. Lincoln, co-chair and professor.
B.S., 1972, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Ph.D., 1978, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed 1981.

William S. Bartels, professor.
A.B., 1977, Rutgers College; M.S., 1981, Ph.D., 1987, University of Michigan. Appointed 1986.

Michael W. McRivette, assistant professor.
B.S., 2001, University of California, San Diego; Ph.D., 2011, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed 2008.

Carrie A. Menold, associate professor.
B.S., 1999, University of Michigan; Ph.D., 2006, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed 2006.

Thomas I. Wilch, professor and Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Trustees' Professor of the Sciences.
B.A., 1987, Macalester College; M.S., 1991, University of Maine; Ph.D., 1997, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Appointed 1998.

Introduction

Geology is the study of the earth, the processes that shape it and the materials of which it is composed. Geology gives students an understanding of the world around them, an appreciation for the length and events of earth history, and the knowledge to help them make informed decisions about environmental concerns.

The Department of Geological Sciences provides undergraduate students intellectually engaging and challenging learning opportunities in geology through integrated classroom, laboratory, field, and research experiences. Our students learn to deal with transdisciplinary problems involving complicated systems with complex variables, a wide range of scales of both time and space, and often incomplete or ambiguous data sets. This is excellent preparation for many careers, including geology, environmental science, law, business, and medicine, as well as for informed citizenship.

Geological Sciences Department Website

Career Opportunities

Albion College geology graduates are successful in obtaining interesting and rewarding jobs. Currently, there are numerous well-paying jobs with petroleum and mineral exploration companies as well as in the area of water resource and environmental management. Other geology graduates have been employed by numerous consulting firms; by research institutes; by state geological surveys and the U.S. Geological Survey; by universities and colleges as geology professors and by secondary schools as earth science teachers.

Over one-half of our graduates have chosen to continue studying geology or other disciplines, including business, law, medicine, and public policy, at major universities and have obtained master's or doctoral degrees before beginning their careers.

Special Features

The department’s facilities include six instructional laboratories, a GIS lab, individual faculty offices and research labs, a student research lab, a map room, and a rock and fossils preparation shop.

Three National Science Foundation grants to the department have established sophisticated geographic information systems (GIS), inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry laboratories. Another NSF grant has provided electronic mapping tools, including global positioning receivers and base stations, laser ranging equipment and an electronic total station for precise fieldwork.

The Dow Analytical Science Laboratory houses a JY ICP spectrometer with a Cetac 5000AT ultrasonic nebulizer, a Rigaku 2100 wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometer, a Fluxy automatic fluxer, a Sedigraph 5100 particle size analyzer, a Rigaku miniflex X-ray diffractometer, and a CEM Mars 5 microwave digestion system. This equipment supports analysis of a wide range of materials, including rocks and natural solutions, for most elements from trace (parts per billion) to major (%) levels. The Geology Shop includes rock crushing and grinding equipment, rock saws and polishing equipment and a Buehler petrographic thin section machine. Students in both introductory and advanced courses use the equipment, and it supports advanced environmental and geological research projects.

Our other laboratories are also well-equipped and include: an Olympus research-grade petrographic microscope with heating/freezing stage and digital imaging systems; a Franz magnetic separator; new binocular and petrographic student microscopes (along with color digital video and photographic microscopy units and image analysis software); three stream tables; a 3-meter flume, wave tank, current velocity meters and data-logging water analysis sondes; exploration seismograph; resistivity apparatus; and a magnetometer. Department collections include over 6,000 rock and mineral specimens, over 10,000 fossil specimens and more than 2,000 specialized maps.

Many departmental maps, minerals, rocks and fossils are displayed throughout the science complex. The Mitchell Museum and the science complex atrium include the wave tank and additional fossil, rock and mineral displays. The hallways of the department also have exhibits of current faculty and student research as well as additional maps and specimens.

The computer laboratory for GIS and digital image analysis includes 16 workstations, two color scanners: a large format map and poster scanner and a desktop flatbed scanner, a color inkjet printer, a laser printer, and a link to the E-size printer/plotter in the nearby Dow Analytical Laboratory. Software for creating, manipulating and analyzing spatial data and images (maps, aerial photos and satellite imagery) includes the most recent versions of ArcGIS for Desktop Advanced, ArcPad, and ENVI.

Field study is important in geology, so the department maintains an active field program. Each spring students and faculty participate in a regional geology seminar and subsequent eight- to 14-day field trip; trips have been to the Pacific Northwest, Wisconsin, California, Louisiana, Great Britain, Iceland, Canada, Alaska, Hawaii, Arizona and New Mexico, New England, the Ozarks, the Northern Appalachians and the Smoky Mountains. Local field trips are sponsored by the student-run Geology Club. In addition, the Geology Department operates a biennial six-week summer field program in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. Students from Albion and many other colleges and universities attend this camp for training in geologic mapping and field research.

Research opportunities are available to all majors in their junior and senior years. Students may work on an individual laboratory or field problem within the scope of their background and present their results at professional meetings. Outstanding seniors are encouraged to complete honors theses. The Lawrence D. Taylor Undergraduate Geology Research Fund supports student research and travel to present at regional and national meetings. A local chapter of Sigma Gamma Epsilon, a national earth science honorary, is active on the Albion campus.

Departmental Policy on Advanced Placement Credit

Students who earn a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam will receive one unit of credit from the Department of Geological Sciences. Students who receive AP credit for calculus, chemistry, computer science, and/or physics from the respective department may use the AP credit to replace equivalent requirements for majors and minors offered by the department. In most cases, these courses might replace a cognate course requirement. Students should consult with the department chair to verify how AP credit may be awarded.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major in Geology

The geology major is designed both for the student who plans to pursue graduate studies in some aspect of geology or become a professional geologist, and for the student who has professional aspirations outside of geology.

Nine units in geology, including; a field work experience; participation in all departmental colloquia during the junior and senior years; two cognate courses.

Core Geology Courses
Geol 101: Introductory Geology
Geol 103: Introduction to Earth History
Geol 201: Structural Geology
Geol 203: Mineralogy
Geol 205: Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
Geol 208: Geomorphology

At least three additional units of geology at the 200-level or higher, at least one of which must be at the 300-level (one unit from Geology 314 may be counted toward this requirement). A minimum of two cognate courses including Chemistry 121 and another chosen from Chemistry 123, Mathematics 141, 143, 210; Physics 115, 116, 167, 168; Biology 195. We encourage all students to take more cognate courses, and students intending to enter graduate school should be aware that many graduate programs require at least two units each of chemistry, calculus and physics. Students with specific interests in geology may want to pursue completing appropriate minors in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry or biology. All majors are required to complete a departmentally-approved independent research project, and are encouraged to complete a senior college or departmental honors thesis.

Requirements for Major in Earth Science

The earth science major is intended for the student who begins the major in second semester of the sophomore year or later or is doing the major in addition to another major.

  • Eight units in geology, including: 101 and 103; either 201 or 203; either 205 or 208; one 300-level elective; and three other geology courses, two of which must be at the 200-level or higher. These may not include Geology 210, summer field camp or a directed study.
  • One cognate course in mathematics, chemistry, physics and/or biology; may include Physics 105 or 206 or one of the courses listed under the geology major requirements above.

Requirements for Major in Geology with Secondary Education Certification

  • Nine units in geology and the completion of all other requirements as listed under the geology major requirements above.
  • Physics 105.
  • Demonstrated mathematics proficiency at the Mathematics 125 level.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification in earth science.
  • Geology 104 and 115 (taken as electives outside the major).

Requirements for Major in Earth Science with Secondary Education Certification

  • Nine units in geology, including: 101, 103, 104, 115, and five other geology courses at the 200-level or higher (one must be at the 300-level), selected in consultation with, and approved by, the department. These may not include Geology 210, summer field camp, or a directed study.
  • Completion of all other requirements as outlined below in the section “Requirements for All Students Majoring in Geology or Earth Science.”
  • Two cognate courses including Physics 105 and one course selected from those listed under the geology major requirements above.
  • Demonstrated mathematics proficiency at the Mathematics 125 level.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for All Students Majoring in Geology or Earth Science

  • All students completing a major in geology or earth science must satisfy a field work requirement equivalent to one unit of study. This requirement may be fulfilled by summer research, internship or work experiences, academic year directed studies, completion of Geology 210 or 314, other suitable field experiences approved by the faculty (such as field trips sponsored by GSA), or some combination of the above.
    • After completing three or four geology courses or at the end of their junior year, geology majors planning graduate study and/or a professional geology career are urged to attend either the Albion summer field camp in the Rocky Mountains or a similar summer geology field course offered by another college or university. This experience is required by most graduate schools before entering a graduate program and is required by many industries and institutions employing geologists.
  • A maximum of one geographic information systems course (Geology 111, 211 or 311) may be counted toward the major.
  • Departmental Colloquia: All geology and earth science majors are required to attend departmental colloquia regularly and to participate once each semester for four semesters.
  • The geology units and the required cognate courses must be taken for a numerical grade. Students considering a geology major are urged to complete the cognate units as early as possible in their Albion career.

Requirements for Minor in Geology

  • Five units in geology, including: Geology 101 or 103 plus four other geology courses, three of which are courses at the 200- or 300-level selected in consultation with and approved by the department chair.
  • Completion of an approved field experience (e.g.,research experience or internship with a significant field component or Geology 210 or Geology 314).
  • Departmental Colloquia: All geology minors are required to attend departmental colloquia regularly and to present once each semester for two semesters.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for a numerical grade.
  • Note: This minor may not be elected by geology majors.

Requirements for Minor in Environmental Geology

  • Five units in geology, including: Geology 101, 202, 208; one unit selected from 306 or 307; one unit selected from 104, 106, 111, 115, 211, or ENVN 102, or a one-unit equivalent of approved independent research (Geology 412 or Geology 411 taken twice).
  • Completion of an approved field experience (e.g., a research experience or internship with a significant field component or Geology 210 or Geology 314).
  • Departmental Colloquia: All environmental geology minors are required to attend departmental colloquia regularly and to present once each semester for two semesters.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for a numerical grade.
  • Note: This minor may not be elected by geology majors.

Requirements for Minor in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  • Three units in GIS and remote sensing: Geology 111, 211, 311.
  • One unit in statistics, mathematics or computer science, selected from Mathematics 209, E&M 235, Mathematics 141 (or a higher level mathematics course), or CS 171.
  • One unit selected from Geology 202 or 208, or a pre-approved course with a significant GIS and/or remote sensing component.
  • A pre-approved experience focusing on the application of GIS or remote sensing in the student's field of study. This could be satisfied by a directed study, a summer research experience, or an internship/work experience.
  • Departmental Colloquia: All GIS minors are required to attend departmental colloquia regularly and to present once each semester for two semesters.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Requirements for Minor in Paleontology (for Geology Majors)

  • Five units, including: Biology 195; two units from Biology 216, 225, 227, 237, 248, 310, or 314; Geology 209 and Geology/Biology 309; and an approved independent research experience selected in consultation with and approved by the department, which may be the same as the project carried out for the geology major.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for a numerical grade.

Requirements for Minor in Paleontology (for Non-Geology Majors)

  • Five units, including: Geology 103, 209, Geology/Biology 309; Biology 195; and one unit from Geology 205, 208 or Geology 412 (or Geology 411 taken twice).
  • Completion of an approved field experience (e.g., a research experience or internship with a significant field component or Geology 210 or Geology 314).
  • Departmental Colloquia: All paleontology minors are required to attend departmental colloquia regularly and to present once each semester for two semesters.
  • All courses for the minor must be taken for a numerical grade.

Requirements for Minor in Earth Science with Secondary Education Certification

  • Six units in geology, including: Geology 101, 103, 104 and 115 and the completion of all other requirements as outlined above in the section "Requirements for Minor in Geology."
  • Physics 105.
  • Demonstrated mathematics proficiency at the Mathematics 125 level.
  • Completion of all other requirements for teacher certification.

Requirements for Interdisciplinary Major in Integrated Science with Elementary Education Certification

Students interested in pursuing elementary education certification may wish to consider an interdisciplinary major in integrated science. The integrated science major is primarily intended for students seeking a broad, cross-disciplinary understanding of the natural sciences. Students completing a major in integrated science are required to take courses in all the natural sciences and also to choose a minor in biology, chemistry, geology or physics. The detailed requirements for the major are provided in this catalog or are available from the Education Department.

Geology Courses

A modest lab fee may be charged in some courses.

101 Introductory Geology (1)
A survey course designed for liberal arts students covering many aspects of physical geology, the study of active earth processes. Labs illustrate lecture materials and the techniques used by geologists. One field trip. Complements the material covered in Geology 103; either course can serve as an introductory course in geology. Staff.

103 Introduction to Earth History (1)
A survey course designed for liberal arts students and covering many aspects of historical geology, the study of evolving environments and life forms on earth. Labs utilize fossils, rock samples, maps and field trips to illustrate techniques used by historical geologists. Complements the material covered in Geology 101; either course can serve as an introductory course in geology. Staff.

104 Earth Resources and the Environment (1)
Without earth resources, civilization would not exist. Gold, diamonds, water, oil, building materials—all of our material resources ultimately are derived from the earth. This course examines the origin and geologic occurrence of these materials and the environmental implications of their utilization. No laboratory. Staff.

106 Natural Disasters (1)
A review of the natural disasters that affect humans and the environment. Emphasizes the causes and prediction of natural hazards, assessment of hazard vulnerability, and disaster mitigation and recovery through case studies of historical and recent natural disasters. Topics include earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, extreme weather, climate change and floods. No laboratory. Staff.

111 Geography and Geographic Information Systems (1)
An introduction to the elementary principles, techniques and utility of geographic information systems (GIS) toward the study of world geography, as well as related concepts and techniques involved in creating and using digital maps. Shows how maps (particularly computer-generated maps) can help in displaying and analyzing geographic and other spatial data, and the use of these analyses in modeling cultural and natural systems. Lecture and laboratory. Some prior computer experience is helpful, but is not required. McRivette.

115 Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate (1)
Describes the world's oceans and atmosphere and considers how they interact with one another, and with humans. Topics include the geological evolution of the ocean basins, ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns, ocean currents, climate and weather patterns, storms and weather fronts, paleo-oceanography and the history of climate, and the chemical composition of the oceans. Emphasizes the role of the oceans in mediating global climate, global change, global dispersal of pollution and other environmental concerns. No laboratory. Offered in alternate years. T. Lincoln, Wilch.

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

201 Structural Geology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103.
Study of stress-strain relationships and behavior of materials, with particular reference to recognition and interpretation of rock structures. Laboratory work includes methods of solving structural problems and the use of geologic maps and cross-sections to interpret sequences of events in complex structural regions. Offered in alternate years. B. Lincoln.

202 Ground Water (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103.
A description of the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on quantifying water budgets and water flow in the shallow earth. Field techniques include stream gauging and well installation, surveying and slug testing. Analytical and numerical models are used to interpret pump test data and to understand water flow to pumping wells and the dispersal and remediation of contamination. Offered in alternate years. T. Lincoln.

203 Mineralogy (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103.
Crystallography, crystal chemistry, optical and physical properties, and the occurrence of rock-forming minerals, with particular emphasis on the silicate minerals. Laboratory emphasizes hand-specimen and optical identification of minerals using petrologic microscopes. Offered in alternate years. Menold.

204 Introductory Petrology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 203.
Hand-specimen and microscopic identification of minerals and rocks. Recognition and classification of all varieties of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, with emphasis on rock-forming processes. Laboratory emphasizes hand-specimen and optical identification of rocks using petrologic microscopes. Offered in alternate years. Menold.

205 Sedimentation and Stratigraphy (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103.
An examination of the processes and principles that control the accumulation and lithification of sediments, based on examples of recent environments and ancient rock sections in many parts of the world. Laboratory emphasizes map-reading skills and methods for studying recent and ancient sediments and rocks. Offered in alternate years. Bartels.

208 Geomorphology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103.
Geologic processes operating at the earth's surface and the landforms they produce. Includes the study of soil formation, river processes, glaciers, wave action, wind, groundwater and their related landforms. Field trips. Laboratory includes analysis of aerial photographs, topographic maps and experiments with flume and wave tank. Offered in alternate years. Wilch.

209 Chronostratigraphy and Invertebrate Paleontology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103, or Biology 195.
A comprehensive examination of invertebrate fossils and measurements of time in geology. Emphasizes study of fossils and their identification, biology, evolutionary history and use in geology. Includes magnetostratigraphy, global event stratigraphy, and radiometric dating methods. Laboratory emphasizes fossil identification, morphology, and functional morphology, and geochronologic exercises using fossils and other geologic data. Two field trips. Offered in alternate years. Bartels.

210 Regional Field Geology (1/2)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103, or permission of instructor.
An in-depth investigation of selected geologic provinces consisting of a seminar course and an 8-14 day field trip. The field trip itself typically begins in early May following commencement. Staff.

211 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 111 recommended.
An introduction to the elementary principles, techniques and utility of remotely sensed imagery and image interpretation, especially when used in conjunction with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Shows how digital maps created from, or utilizing, digital imagery from airplanes, space shuttles and satellites can help in displaying and analyzing spatial data, modeling processes and making decisions. Laboratory emphasizes the use of remote sensing and GIS in a variety of environmental applications. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. McRivette.

212 Volcanology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103, or permission of instructor.
Study of volcanic processes, eruptive products and their mechanism of formation, monitoring of active volcanoes, volcanic hazards, and the environmental impact of volcanism. Focuses on historical and modern case studies. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Wilch.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

306 Glaciers and Climate Change (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or 103.
Covers the dynamics of glacier flow, origin of glacial features, events of the Pleistocene Epoch with emphasis on the Great Lakes area, Earth's climate history, causes of ice ages, recent and future climate change. Lecture, laboratory and field trips. Offered in alternate years. Wilch.

307 Geochemistry (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 203 or Chemistry 121.
The application of chemical principles to the study of the earth with emphasis on environmental geochemistry. Topics include the distribution of chemical elements within the earth, rock weathering, the chemistry of natural solutions, surface chemistry and the behavior of contaminants in the environment. Laboratories involve both field and laboratory techniques and rely heavily on state-of-the-art instrumentation, including optical emission and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and ion chromatography. Offered as needed. T. Lincoln.

309 Vertebrate Paleontology (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 103 or Biology 195.
The fossil record, evolution, morphology, adaptation and paleobiogeography of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The interactions of vertebrates with ancient floras, climates and plate configurations will be emphasized. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years.  Same as Biology 309. Bartels.

310 Igneous and Metamorphic Geochemistry (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 204 or permission of instructor.
Petrogenesis and occurrence of igneous and metamorphic rocks with emphasis on using geochemical tools to understand the behavior of magmas, origin of crystalline rock and the physiochemical theories of metamorphism. Includes interpretation of phase diagrams, use and interpretation of geochemical data and modeling, and isotope geochemistry. Offered in alternate years. Menold.

311 Advanced Geographic Information Systems (1)
Prerequisite: Geology 111 or permission of instructor.
The study of the more advanced capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Emphasizes spatial modeling and analysis using GIS software such as ArcView GIS. Topics include map algebra, point pattern analysis, network analysis, grid analysis and 3-D surface analysis. Students learn how to use these and other GIS tools for decision-making, model building and the effective use of maps. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. McRivette.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Geology 101 or permission of instructor.
Critical evaluation of current topics in geology as determined by student and staff interest. Recent topics have been regional geology, engineering geology, paleoecology and volcanology. Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Staff.

Summer Session
The following course is offered in the summer session in South Dakota and Wyoming.

314 Field Methods (2)
Prerequisites: Geology 201, 204, 205 (or their equivalents) or permission of instructors.
Summer field camp course focused on geologic mapping in the northern Rocky Mountains. Field work is done in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Offered in summer session, in alternate years. Staff.

Faculty

Helena G. Mesa, program chair and associate professor.
B.A., 1994, Indiana University; M.F.A., 1997, University of Maryland; Ph.D., 2003, University of Houston. Appointed 2003.

Michael Dixon, associate professor.
B.F.A., 1999, Arizona State University; M.F.A., 2005, University of Colorado at Boulder. Appointed 2008.

Eric D. Hill, assistant professor.
B.A., 2004, Oglethorpe University; M.A., 2007, Ph.D., 2010, Arizona State University. Appointed 2010.

Dominick N. Quinney, assistant professor.
B.S., 2007, Ph.D., 2013, Michigan State University. Appointed 2013.

Lynn Verduzco-Baker, assistant professor.
B.A., California State University, Fresno; M.S., Ph.D., University of Michigan. Appointed 2011.

Introduction

Ethnic studies is both the comparative study of ethnicity and the study of the culture and history of particular ethnic groups within the United States and other countries. As the study of ethnicity, ethnic studies examines factors that account for the creation and maintenance of ethnic identity, the development of ethnic stereotypes and prejudice, and the quality of ethnic relations. In regard to particular ethnic groups, ethnic studies encourages the exploration of the specific histories, values and contributions of the country's many constituent groups. Ethnic studies also provides the means to identify the prejudices and assumptions that have shaped traditional scholarship in the academic disciplines and to correct these biases.

Career Opportunities

Knowledge of ethnic traditions and ethnic relations is sought after in many fields including but not limited to politics, social services, business, law, medicine and psychology-related careers. This demand recognizes both that America is an increasingly multicultural society and that business people and professionals need to know these multiple groups in order to serve them better.

Majors and Minors

Requirements for Major

  • Eight units, including the following:

    Ethnic Studies 103, one unit.

    Five units from an approved list of courses (see below). These courses, to be selected in consultation with the program chair, must include two at the 200-level and three at the 300-level. They must be selected from three different departments.

    An ethnic studies-related internship (or off-campus experience), one unit. The internship, providing hands-on experience with other racial or ethnic communities, may be completed in ethnic communities elsewhere in the United States or in study and research in ancestral communities or multi-ethnic communities outside the United States. Students upon returning must schedule an appointment with the ethnic studies faculty and submit evaluation form(s) and journal report to the ethnic studies faculty on how their experience has enhanced their multicultural understanding of the world. Students, working in consultation with the program chair, are encouraged to explore a variety of options for the internship experience.

    Ethnic Studies 370, one unit.

Ethnic Studies Major Electives

The following courses may be used to fulfill the elective component in the ethnic studies major.

Anthropology and Sociology
280 Children of Immigrants (same as ETHN 280)
345 Race and Ethnicity
Art History
312 Race and Its Representation in American Art
Communication Studies
213 Intercultural Communication
Economics and Management
322 Issues in Modern Political Economy
354 Labor Economics
Education
202 Foundational Contexts of Education
English
211 Latina/o Literature
360 The Problem of Race in American Literature
Ethnic Studies
260 Caribbean Identity and Migration
270 Hip Hop for Social Change
280 Children of Immigrants (same as A&S 280)
French
330 French Louisiana
History
142 Modern Latin America
243 African American History, 1865 to the Present
270 Going North: Latin American Immigration and U.S. History
300 Slave Societies of the Americas
385 British India
390 History of Women in the United States, 1877-Present
398 The 1960s

Modern Languages and Cultures
107 "Our Americas": Crossing Borders, Histories, and Cultures
Spanish
362 Hispanic Literature and Cultures in the U.S.
Theatre
372 Postmodernism and Theatre
Selected 189, 289, 389 Courses (as approved by the ethnic studies chair)

Requirements for Minor

  • Five units, including:
    • Ethnic Studies 103 (1 unit);
    • Ethnic Studies 370 (1 unit);
    • Three units from the elective ethnic studies courses; and
    • Elective ethnic studies courses must come from at least two of the lists below.
  • Elective courses should be selected in consultation with an ethnic studies faculty member and reported to the Ethnic Studies Program chair.
  • All courses must be taken for a numerical grade, except those offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Ethnic Studies Minor Electives

List 1: Arts and Humanities*
Art History 312: Race and Its Representation in American Art
English 211: Latina/o Literature
English 360: The Problem of Race in American Literature
Ethnic Studies 270: Hip Hop for Social Change
French 330: French Louisiana
Modern Languages 107: “Our Americas”: Crossing Borders, Histories, and Cultures
Spanish 362: Hispanic Literature and Cultures in the U.S.
Theatre 372: Postmodernism and Theatre

List 2: Politics and Society*
Anthropology and Sociology 280: Children of Immigrants (Same as Ethnic Studies 280)
Anthropology and Sociology 345: Race and Ethnicity
Communication Studies 213: Intercultural Communication
Economics and Management 322:  Issues in Modern Political Economy
Economics and Management 354: Labor Economics
Ethnic Studies 289: Diversity and Education
Ethnic Studies 289: Social Movements

List 3: History of Ethnic Communities*
History 142: Modern Latin America
History  243: African American History 1865—Present
History 270: Going North: Latin American Immigration and U.S. History
History 300: Slave Societies of the Americas
History 385: British India
History 390: History of Women in the United States, 1877-Present
History 398: The 1960s
*Or courses approved by the Ethnic Studies Program.

Ethnic Studies Courses

103 Introduction to Ethnic Studies (1)
An introduction to the comparative study of ethnicity, as well as the history and culture of particular ethnic groups in America. Issues--ethnic identity, ethnocentrism, discrimination, assimilation and multiculturalism--are analyzed from a variety of disciplines in the humanities, social sciences and the arts. Serves as the introductory course for the ethnic studies concentration. Staff.

187, 188, 189 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

260 Caribbean Identity and Migration (1)
Examines the cultural richness and diversity of the Caribbean diaspora with an emphasis on the Spanish-speaking islands, including Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, drawing on music, literature, film and history. Considers how this population continues to influence growth and change in American society by looking at issues of identity, migration patterns, and broader economic, cultural and social conditions. Staff.

270 Hip Hop for Social Change (1)
Investigates the social, cultural and political dynamics of the hip hop generation. Uses hip hop to frame the analysis of U.S. and urban “social problems” since the late 1960s. Introduces the sociohistorical and sociopolitical roots and development of hip hop, its impact on popular and youth culture, and its significance for understanding American society. Addresses major topics surrounding hip hop including race and ethnicity, gender and sexuality, social class, segregation/mass incarceration, politics, and education. Examines scholarly and popular texts, film, hip hop music, and original student work to gain a comprehensive understanding of these issues. Quinney.

280 Children of Immigrants (1)
Prerequisite: A&S 101 or Ethnic Studies 103.
A study of theoretical arguments in the current literature on immigrant adaptation and assimilation, as well as public fears of multiculturalism. Examines in depth the renegotiation of identity and the process of incorporation for immigrant families in the U.S. and how these experiences contrast to immigrants living in the Netherlands, France, Canada and the United Kingdom. Staff.

287, 288, 289 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

370 Theories and Methods in Ethnic Studies (1)
Prerequisite: Ethnic Studies 103 or permission of instructor.
Designed as a capstone course to integrate students’ internship and course work experiences and deepen their analytical understanding of issues related to race/ethnicity. Examines the development of ethnic and race relations, ethnic and race discrimination, and American identity using different multicultural theoretical perspectives. Includes field work and/or other research on a topic related to race/ethnicity. Staff.

387, 388, 389 Selected Topics (1/4, 1/2, 1)
An examination of subjects or areas not included in other courses. Staff.

391, 392 Internship (1/2, 1)
Offered on a credit/no credit basis. Staff.

401, 402 Seminar (1/2, 1) Staff.

411, 412 Directed Study (1/2, 1)
Prerequisite: Permission of department chair. Staff.

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